Now writing under the pen-name of HARUN YAHYA, he was born in
Ankara in 1956. H*ving completed his primary and secondary education in
Ankara, he studied arts at Istanbul's Mimar Sinan University and philosophy
at Istanbul University. Since the 1980s, he has published many books on po-
litical, scientific, and faith-rela*ed issues. Harun Yahya is well-known as the
author of important works disclosing the imposture of evolutionists, their in-
valid claims, and the dark liaisons between Darwinism and such bloody ide-
ologies as fascism and communism.
Harun Y*hy*'s works, translated*into 41 d*fferent l*n*uages, *onstitute
a collection for a total of more than 45,000 pages with 30,000 illustrations.
His pen-name is a composite of the names Harun (Aaron) and Yahya
(John), in memory of the two esteemed *rophets who fought against t*eir pe-
ople's lack of faith. The Prophet's seal on his books' covers is symbolic and is
linked to their contents. *t represents the Qur'an (the Final Scripture) and
Prophet Muhammad (may God bless*him and grant him peace), last of the
prophets. Under the guidance of the Qur'an and the Sunnah (teachings of the
Prophet), the author makes it his purpose to disprove each fundamental te-
net o* godle*s ideolo*ies and*t**have t*e "last word,**so as to completely si-
lence the objections raised against religion. He uses the seal of the final Prop-
het (may God bless him and grant him peace), who *ttained ultimate*wisdom
and moral perfection, as a sign of his intention to offer the last word.
All of Harun Yahya's works share one single goal: to convey the
Qur'an's message, encourage readers to consider basic faith-related issues
such as God's existence and unity and the Here-
after; and to expose godless systems' feeble
foundations and perverted ideologies.
Harun Yahya enjoys a wide rea*ers-
hip in many countries, from India to
America, England to Indonesia, Poland
to Bosnia, Spain to Brazil, Malaysia to
Italy, France to Bulgaria and Russia.
Some of his books are av*ilable in Eng-
lish, French, German, Spanish, Italian,
Portuguese, Urdu, Arabic, Albanian,
Chinese, Swahili, Hausa, Dhivehi (spo-
ken in Mauritius), Russian, Serbo-Croat (Bosnian), Polish, Malay, Uygur Tur-
kish, Indonesian, Bengali, Danish and Swedish.
Greatly appreciated all around the world, these works have been inst-
rumental in many **ople recovering f*ith in **d and gaining deeper in-
sights into their faith. His books' wisdom and sincerity, together with a dis-
tinct style that's easy to understand, directly affect anyone who reads them.
Th****w** **ri***** ***s**e* **e*e**********n**o*l**ger*a**o*a** *t**i*m
o**any**ther*perver*ed ideology o* materialistic philo*ophy, since *hese bo-
oks are characterized by *apid effectiveness, definite results, and irrefutabi-
lity. Even if they continue t* do so, it will be only a sentimental insistence,
since these books refute such ideologies *rom th*ir very foundations. All con-
temporary movements of denial are now ideologically defeated, thanks to
the books written by Harun Yahya.
This is no doubt a result of the Qur'an's wisdom and lucidity. The aut-
hor modestly intends to serve as a means in humanity's search for God's
right path. No material gain is sought in the publication of these works.
Those who encourage others to read these books, to open their minds
and hearts and guide them to become more devoted servants of God, render
an invaluable service.
Meanwhile, it would only be a waste *f time and energ* to propagate
other books that create confusion in people's minds, lead them into ideologi-
cal chaos, and that clearly have no strong and precise effects in removing the
doubts in people's hearts, as also verified from previous experience. It is im-
possible for books devised to emphasize the author's literary power rather
than the noble goal of saving people from*loss of faith, *o*hav* such a great
effect. Those who doubt this can readily see that the sole aim of Harun Yah-
ya's books is to overcome disbelief and to disseminate the Qur'an's moral va-
lues. The success and impact of this service are manifested in the readers'
One point should be kept in mind: The main reason for the continuing
cruelty, conflict, and other ordeals endured by the vast majority of people is
the ideological prevalence of disbelief. This can be ended only with the ide-
ological defeat of disbelief and by conveying the wonders of creation and
Qur'anic morality so that people can live by it. Considering the state of the
world today, leading into a downward spiral of violence, corruption and
co*flict, clearly this service must be provided speedil* and effectively, or it
may be too late.
In this effort, the books of Harun Yahya assume a leading role. By the
will of God, these books will be a means through which people in the twen-
ty-first century will attain the peace, justice, and happiness promised in the
A special chapter is assigned to the collapse of the theory of evolution be-
cause this theory constitutes the basis of all anti-spiritual philosophies. Since
Darwinism rejects*the f*ct of **eat*on—a*d t*erefore, Go**s Existence*over
the last 140 years it has caused many people to abandon their faith or fall into
doubt. It is therefore an imperative service, a very important duty to show
everyone that this theory is a dece*tion. Since some readers may find the
chance*to read only o*e of our books, we t*ink it appropriate to devote a chap-
ter to summarize this subject.
A*l the author's books explain faith-related issues in light of Qur'ani* vers-
es, and invite readers to learn God's words and to live by them. All the subjects
concerning God's verses are explai*ed so as to leave no doubt or room for ques-
tions in the reader's mind. The books' sincere, plain, and fluent style ensures
that everyone of every age and from every social group can easily understand
them. Thanks to their effective, lucid narrative, they can be read at one sitting.
*ven*those who rigorou**y reject s*irituality are influenc*d b* the ***ts t*ese
books document and cannot refute the truthfulness of their contents.
This and*a** t*e o*he* bo*ks b* *he a*thor ca* b* re*d *n*i*idually, or d**-
cussed in a group. Readers eager to profit from the books wi*l find discussion
very useful, letting them relate t*eir reflections*and experiences to one *nother.
In addition, it will be a great service to Islam to contribute to the publica-
tion and reading of these books, written solely for the pleasure of God. The au-
thor's books are all extremely convincing. For this reason, to communicate true
religion to others, one of the most effective methods is encouraging them to
read these books.
We hope the reader will look through the reviews of his othe* books at the
back of this book. His rich source material on faith-related issues is very useful,
and a pleasure to read.
In these books, unlike some other books, you will not find the author's
personal views, explanations based on dubious sourc*s, styles that are unob-
servant of the respect and reverence due to sacred subjects, nor hopeless, pes-
simistic arguments*that create doubts in the mind and deviations in the heart.
Technology Imitates
*ra*slat*d by C*rl **ssi*i
Edited by Tam Mossman
Published by
Talatpasa Mah. Emir Gazi Cad.
Ibrahim Elmas Ismerkezi A Blok Ka*.4
Phone: +90 212 2220088
Printed and bound by Secil Ofset in Istanbul
100. Yil Mah. MAS-SIT Matbaacilar Sitesi 4. Cadde No: 77
Phone: (+90 212) 6*9 06 15
All translations from the Qur'an are from The Noble Qur'an: a New Rendering
of its Meaning in English by Hajj Abdalhaqq and Aisha Bewley, published by
Bookwork, Norwich, UK. 1420 CE/1999 AH.
Abbreviation used:
(pbuh): Peace be upon him (following a reference to
the prophets)
w w w. h a r u n y a h y a . c o m
Technology Imitates
March, 2006
magine you’ve just bought an immensely detailed mod-
el airplane kit. How do you set about putting all the hun-
dreds of tiny parts together? First, no doubt, you’ll ex-
amine the illustrations on the box. Then, following the in-
structions inside shortens the whole process of putting a
model t*gether in the best way possible, making no mistakes.
Even lacking any assembly instructions, *ou can still manage the
task if you already possess a similar model airplane. The first plane’s de-
sign can serve as an important guide in assembling any later one. In the
exact same way, using a flawless design in nature as a mo*el provides
shortcuts to designing technological equipment with the same functi*ns
in the most perfect possible manner. Aware of this, most scientists and re-
search and development (R&D) experts study the examples of living
things before embarking on any new designs, and imitate the systems and
designs that already exist. In other words, they examine the designs God
has created in na*ure and, *hen inspi*ed, go o* to devel*p new technolo-
This approach has given birth to a new branch of science: biomimet-
ics, which means the imitation of living things in nature. This new study
is being spoken of more and more often in technological circles and is
opening up important new h*rizons for mankind.
As biomimetics emerges, imitating the structures of living systems, it
presents a major setback fo* those scientists who still support the theory
of evolution. From an evolutionist’s point of view, it’s entirely unaccept-
*ble**o* me*—**om th*y*regar**** the**igh**t rung ** th**evolutiona*y
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
ladder—to try to draw inspiration from (much less imitate) other living
things which, allegedly, are so much more primitive than they are.
If more advanced living things take the designs of “primitive” ones
as models, that means that we’ll be basing a large part of our future tech-
nology on the structure of those so-called lesser organisms. That, in turn,
is a fundamen*al violation of the t*eo*y of e**lutio*, who*e logic*main-
tains that living things too primitive to adapt to their environments *oon
became extinct, while the remaining “higher” ones evolved and succeed-
Biomimetics, while placing the proponents of evolution in a vicious
circle, is expanding by the day and coming to dominate scientific thought.
In the light of this, yet another new scientif*c branch has emerged: bio-
mimicry, or the science of imitating the behavior of living creatures.
This book considers the advances that biomimetics and biomimicry
have made by taking nature as their model. It examines the flawless but
hitherto, little noted systems that have existed ever s*nce *iving things
were first created. It also describes how nature’s many varied and highly
efficient mechanisms, which baffle the proponents of evolution, are all
products of our Lord’s unique creation.
What Is Biomimetics?
Biomimetics and biomimicry are both aimed at solving problems by
first examinin*, and then imitating or drawing inspiration from models in
Biomimetics is the term used to des*ribe the substances* equipment,
mechanisms and *ystems by which humans imitate natural systems and
designs, especially in the fields of defense, nanotechnology 1 , robot tech-
nology, and artificial intelligenc* (also known as AI, for short).
Th**co**ep* *f *io**mi***,***rst*pu* f**th b*****i*e *. *en*us* a
Harun Yahya
writer and scientific observer from
Montana, was later taken up and
begun to be used by a great many
others. One of their accounts de-
scribes her work and the whole de-
velopment of biomimicry:
A naturalist and author of several
f*eld guides to wildlife, she visited
Janine M. Benyus and her book Biomimicry
th**laboratori*s of*a*number of sci-
entific researcher* who are taking a
more modest approach to unravel-
ing nature’s secrets. The theme of “biomimicry” is that we have much to learn
from *he natural w*rld* as model, me*sure, a*d me*tor. W*at these researche*s
have in common is a reverence for natural designs, and the inspiration to use
them to solve human problems. 2
David Oakey is a*product strategist for Interface Inc., one of the firms
making use of nature to improve product quality and productivity. On the
subject of biomimicry, he has this to say:
Nature is my mentor for business and design, a model for the way of life.
Nature's system has worked for millions of years Biomimicry is a way of
learning from nature. 3
This rapidly expanding concept foun* favor with scientists, who
were able to accelerate their own research by drawing for inspiration on
nature’s incomparably flawless models. Scientific researchers working on
economic systems and raw materials—in t*e industrial field in particu-
lar—have now joined forces to determine how best to imitate nature.
Designs in nature ensure the greatest productivity for the least
amount of materials and energy. They’re able to repair themselves, are en-
vironmentally friendly and wholly recyclable. They operate silently, are
pleasing in ae*t*eti* appea*ance, and offer long lives and dura*il*ty. All
these good qualities are being taken as models
to emulate. As the journal High Country News
wrote, “By using natural systems as models, we
can create technologies that are more sustainable
than those in use today.” 4
Janine M. Benyus, author of the book Biomimicry, came to believe in
the need for imitating nature by considering its perfections. Following are
some of the*examples she cites, which led her to defend such an approach:
• Hummingbirds' ability to cross the Gulf of Mexico on less than 3
grams of fuel,
• H** dragonflies*are more*maneuve*able than even the best heli-
• The heating and air conditioning systems in termite mounds—in
terms of equipment and energy consumption, far superior to those con-
structed by man,
• Bats’ high-frequency transmitter, far more efficient and sensitive
than radar systems created by huma* beings,
• How *ight-emitting algae combine different chemical substances to
give off light without heat,
• How arctic fish and temperate-zone frogs return to life after being
frozen, with the ice doing their organs no harm,
• How anole lizards and chameleons change their colors—and how
octopi and cuttlefish change both their colors
and patterns in a mom*nt—to *lend in with
their surroundings,
• Bees’, turtles’ and birds’ ability to
navigate without maps,
• Whales and penguins diving un-
derwater for long *eriods w*thout
scuba gear,
Harun Yahya
•*How the *NA hel*x stor** information in all liv*ng things,
* How, t*rough photosynthesis, leaves perform an astounding chem-
ical reaction to create 300 billion tons*of sugar every yea*.
These are just a few*examples of the natural mechanisms and designs
that create great excitement, and have the potential to*enrich a great many
areas of techn*logy. As our inf*rmation accumul*tes and technol*gical
po*sibi**ties**ncr*as** t**** **te*tial b*co*e* *ver cl**rer.
In the 19 th century, for example, nature was imitated only for its aes-
thetic values. Painters and architects of the time, influenced by the beau-
ties of the natural world, duplicated these structures’ external appearance
in***eir ow* creations. But the dee*er**ne*looks into the *ine detail, the
more astonishing nature’s immaculate order becomes. Gradually, as the
extraordinary nature of natural designs and the benefits that their imita-
tion would bring to mankind, natural mechanisms began to be studied
more closely—and finally, at the molecular level.
The emerging materials, structures and machines being developed
thr*ugh biomimetic* *an be used in new sol*r**ells, *dvanced robots and
future spacecraft. From that perspective, nature’s designs are*opening in-
credibly broad horizons.
How Will Biomimetics Change Our*Lives?
Our Lord has given us *he designs in nature as great blessings.
Imitating them, taking them as models will direct mankind toward what
is right and true. For som* reason, only recently has *he*scientific com-
munity understood that nature’s designs are an enormous resource and
that the*e need*to *e made use of in daily life.
A great many authoritative scientific publications accept that natur-
al structures represent a hu*e resource for showing mankind the way to-
ward*s*p*r*o* *es****. N*t**e **g**ine e*****s** i* *n**he** *****:
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
Yet fundamental research on the character of nature’s m*chanisms, from the ele-
phant to the protein, is sure to enrich the pool from which designers and engi-
neers can draw ideas. The scope for deepening this pool is still tremendous. 5
The correct use of this resource will certainly lead to a process of
rapid de*elopm*nt* in te*hnology. Biomimet**s expe*t Janine*M.*Benyus
has stated that imitat*ng nature will let us advance i* a great many fields,
such as food and energy production, information storage, and health. As
examples, she cites mechanisms inspired by leaves, which work on solar
energy; the production of computers that transmit signals the way cells
do; and ceramics made to resist breakage by imitating m*ther-of-pearl. 6
Therefore, it’s evident that the Biomimetic Revolution will influence
mankind profoundly and let us live in ever greater ease and comfort.
One by one, today’s developing technologies are discovering the
miracles of creation; and biomimetics is only one of the fields that’s
putting the extraordinary desi*ns of living things to use as models in the
service of mankind. A few of the scientific papers dealing with these mat-
ters include:
● "Learning from Designs in Nature" 7
● "Projects at the Centre for Biomimetics" 8
● "Science Is Imitating Nature" 9
● "Life’s Lessons in Desi*n" 10
● "Biomimicry: Secrets Hiding in Plain Sight" 11
● "Biomimicry: Innovation Inspired by Nature" 12
● "Biomimicry: Genius that Surrounds Us" 13
● "Biomimetics: Creating Materials From Nature’s Blueprints" 14
● "Engineers Ask Nature for Design Advice" 15
Perusing articles like these demonstrates how the results of this sci-
entific research are, one by one, revealing proofs of the existence of God.
Harun Yahya
In order to create, God has no need to design
It’s important that the word “design” be properly understood. That
God has created a flawless design does not mean that He first made a plan
and then followed it. G*d, the Lord of the Earth and the heavens, needs
no “designs” in order to create. G*d is exalted above all such deficiencies.
His plannin* and creation take place at the same instant.
W*enever God wills a thing to come about, it *s enough for Him just
to say, "Be!"
As v*rse* of the Qur’an tell us:
His command when He desires a thing is just to say to it, “Be!” and
it is. (Qur'an, 36: 82)
[God is] the Originator of the heavens and Earth. When He decides
on something, He just says to it, “Be!” and it is. (Qur'an, 2: 117)
urrently, many scientists are studying the structure
of natural materials and using them as models in
their own research, simply because these struc-
tures possess such sought-after properties as
strength, lightness and elasticity. For example, the
inner shell of the abalone is twice as resistant as the ceramics that
even advanced technology can produce. Spider silk is five times
stronger than steel, and the adhesive that mussels use to moor
themselves to rocks maintains its properties even underwater. 16
Gulgun Akbaba, a member of the Turkish Bilim ve Teknik
(Science and Technology) Magazine research and publication
group, speaks of the superior characteri*tics of natural materials
and the ways in which we can make use of them:
Traditional ceramic and glass materials have become unable to adapt
to technology, which improves almost with every passing day.
Scientists are [now] working to fill this gap. The architectural secrets
in the structures in **tu*e have slowly begun to be rev*aled…*In the
same way that a mussel shell can repair itself or a wounded shark can
repair damage to its skin, the materials used in technology will also
be able to renew them-
These materials which
are harder, stronger,
more resistant and have
super*or physical, me-
chanical, chemical and
electro*agnetic proper-
‹lhan Aksay
Biomimetics: Technol*gy Imitates Nature
t***, *****ss*li*ht**s**a****h* *b***t**t* **th********gh
temperatures required by such vehicles as rockets, space
shuttles, and research satellites when leaving and entering
the Earth’s atmosphere. Work on the giant supersonic pas-
senger carriers planned for intercontinental travel also re-
quires light, heat-resistant materials. In medicine, the pro-
duction of artificial bone requires materials that co*bine
spongy appearance*with hard structure, and tissue as close
as possible to that found in nature. 17
To produce ceramic, used for a wide range of purposes from con-
struction to ele*tric*l equipment, temperatures greater than 1,000-1,500 o C
(1,830-2,730 o F) are generally needed.
Several*c**ami* **terials ex*st ** na*ure,*yet *u** h*gh *empe*at*r*s
are never used to create them. A mussel, for *nstance, secretes its shell in
a perfect manner at only 4 o C (39 o F). This example of nature’s superior cre-
ation drew the attention of Turkish scientist Ilhan Aksay, who turned his
thoughts to won**ring how we might produce better, st*onger, useful
and functional ceramics.
Examining the int*rnal structures of the shells of a number of sea
creatures, Aksay noticed the extraordinary prope*ties of abalone shells.
Magnified 300,000 times with an electron microscope, the shell resembled
a brick wall, with calcium carbonate “bricks” al-
ternating with a protein “mortar.” Despite
calcium carbonate’s essentially brit-
tle nature, the shell was extremely
strong due to its laminated struc-
ture and less brittle than man-made
ceramics. Aksay found that its lami-
nation helps keep cracks from
*ropa*ating* in ro*ghly the
Harun Yahya
same way that a braided rope doesn’t fail when
one single strand breaks. 18
Inspired by such models, Aksay developed
some very hard, resistant ceramic-metal compos-
ites. After being tested in various US Army labora-
tories, a boron-carbide/aluminum composite he
helped develop was used as armor plating for
tanks! 19
In order to produce biomimetic materials, to-
day’s scientists are carrying out *esearch at the mi-
croscopic level. As one example, Professor Aksay
points out that the bioceramic-type materials in
bones and teeth are formed at body temperature
with a combination of organic materials such as
Abalone shell consists
of microscopic bricks in
* laye*e* *truc*ur**that
prevents any cracks in
the shel* from spread-
proteins, and yet possess properties much superior to those of man-made
ceramics. Encouraged by Aksay’s thesis that natural materials’ superior
properties stem from connections at the nanometric level (one-millionth
of a millimeter), many companies aim-
ing to produce micro-tools at t*ese di-
mensions have embarked on bio-in-
Coral rivals the*mussel
shell’s mother-of-
pearl in terms of
solidity. Using the
calcium salts from
s e a w a t e r ,
coral forms a
hard struc-
ture capable
through even
*tee* ships’ hulls.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
spired materials—that is, artificial substances inspired by biological
ones. 20
All too many industrial products and byproducts, produced under
condi*i*ns of high press*res and*temperatures, contain harmful chemi-
cals. Yet nature produces similar substances under what might be de-
scribed as “life-friendly” conditions—in water-based solutions, for exam-
ple, and at room temperature. This represents a distinct advantage for
consumers and scientists alike. 21
Producers of synthetic diamonds, designers of metal alloys, polymer
scientists, fiber optic experts, producers of fine ceramic and developers of
semi-conductors all find ap*lying biomime*ic methods to be the most
practical. Natural materials, which can respond to all their needs, also dis-
play enormous variety. Therefore, research experts in various fields—
from bullet-proof vests to jet engines—imitate the originals found in na-
ture, replicating their superior properties by artificial means.
The U.S. Army subjected the substance
inspired by the abalone to various
tests and later used it as armor on
Harun Yahya
A great many substances in na-
ture possess features that can
be used as models for modern
inventions. On a gram-for-gram
basis, for example, bone is
much stronger than iron.
Man-made materials eventually crack and shatte*. This requires re-
placement or repairs, carried out with adhesives, for instance. But some
materials in nature, such as the mussel’s shell, can be repaired by the orig-
inal organisms. Recently, in imitation, scientists have begun development
of substances such as p*lymers and polycyclates, which can renew them-
selves. 22*In*t*e s*arch to develop st*ong, self-renewing bio*inspired ma*e-
r*als, one*nat**al substance*tak** as * m*del is rhinoceros horn.*In*the 21 st
century, such research will form the basis of material science studies.
Most of the materials in nature consist of composites. Composites are
solid materials that result when two or more substances are combined to
form a new substance possessing properties that are superior to those of
*he *r*g**** ***r***e*ts**23
The artificial composite k*own as fiberglass, for instance, is used in
boat hulls, fishing rods, and sports-equipment materials such as bows
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
and arrows. Fiberglass is created by mixing fine glass fibers with a jelly-
like plastic called polymer. As the polymer hardens, the composite sub-
stance tha* emerges *s**ig*t, strong and fl*xible. Alter*ng the fibe*s or plas-
tic substance used in the mixture also changes the composite’s proper-
ties. 24
Composites consisting of graphite and carbon fibers are among the
ten best engineering discoveries of the last 25 years. With these, light-
structured composite materials are designed for new planes, space shut-
tle parts, sports equipment, Formula-1 r*cing cars and yachts, and new
discoveries are quickly being made. Yet so far, manmade composites are
**** *o*e****mit*ve*an***ra*l*th**********c**rrin* *********.
Like all the extraordinary *tructures, substances and syste*s in na-
ture, the composites touched on briefly here are each an example of God’s
extraordinary art of creation. Many verses of the Qur’an draw attention to
the unique nature and perfection of this creation. God reveals the incal-
Thanks to t*eir super**r p*operties, light composi*e materials are used in a wide num-
ber*of purposes, from space technology to sports equipment.
Harun Yahya
culable number blessings imparted to
mankind as a result of His incomparable
If you tried to number God’s
bl*ssings, you could never count
them. God is Ever-Forgiving, Most
Merciful. (Qur’an, 16: 1*)
Fiberglass Technology in Crocodile Skin
The fiberglass technology that began to be used in the 20 th century
has existed in living things since the day of their creation. A crocodile’s
skin, for example, has much the same structure as *iberglass.
Until recently, scientists were baffled as to why crocodile skin was
impervious to arrows, knives and sometimes, even bullets. Research came
up with surprising results: The substance that gives crocodile skin its spe-
cial strength is the collagen protein fibers it contains. These fibers have the
B*omimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
property of strengthening a tissue when added to it. No doubt collagen
didn’t come to possess such detailed characteristics as the result of a long,
random *rocess, as evolutionists would have us believe. Rather, it
emerged perfect and complete, with all its properties, at the first moment
of its creation.
Steel-Cable Technology in Muscles
Another example of natural composites are ten-
dons. These tissues, which connect muscles to the
bones, have a very firm yet pliant structure, thanks
to the collagen-based fibers that make them up.
Another feature of tendons is the way their
fibers are woven together.
Ms. Benyus is a member of the teach-
ing faculty at America’s Rutgers
University. In her book Biomimicry,
she states that the tendons in
our muscles are constructed
according to a very spe-
Bunch of cables
The load-bearing cables
in suspension bridges are
composed of bundles
of strands, just like
our muscles.
Load bearing
Muscle fiber
Harun Yahya
cial method and goes on to say:
The tendon in your forearm is a twisted bundle of cables, like the cables u*ed in
a suspensio**bridge. Each individual cable is itself a twisted bundle of thinner
cables. Each of these thinner cables is it*elf a twisted bundle of molecules, which
are, of course* twisted, helical bundles of atoms. Again and again a mathemati-
cal beauty u*folds, a self-referential, fractal k*leidoscope*of engineering bril-
liance. 25
In fact, the steel-cable technology used in present-day suspension
bridges*was inspired by the structure of tendons in the human body. The
tendons’ incomparable design is only one of the countless proofs of God’s
superior design *n* in*inite kn*wled*e.
Multi-Purpose Whale Blubber
A layer of fat covers the bodies of dolphins and whales, serving as a
natural flotation mechanism that allows whales to rise to the surface to
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
Whale blubber
breathe. At the same time, it protects
th*se warm-blooded mammals from
the cold waters of the ocean
depths. Another property o* whale
blubber is that when metabolized,
it pro*ides**wo to *hree*ti*es *s
much energy as sugar or protein.
During a whale’s nonfeeding mi-
gration of thousands*of kilometers,
when it is unable to find sufficient
food, it obtains the *eeded energy from
this fat in its body.
Alongside this, whale blubber is a very flexible rubberlike material.
Every time it beats its tail in the water, the elastic recoil of blubbe* is com-
pressed and stret*hed. This not only provides the whale with extra speed,
but also allows a 20% energy saving on long journeys. With all these prop-
erties, whale blubber is regarde* as a substance with the very *idest
range of f*nctio*s.
Whales have had their coating of blubber for thousands of years, yet
only recently has it been discovered to consist of a complex mesh of col-
*agen fibe*s.*Sc*entists *re s*i*l working *o fully und*rsta*d the fu*ctions
of this fat-composite mix, but they believe that it is yet another miracle
product that would have many useful applications if produced syntheti-
cally. 26
Mother-of-Pearl’s Special Damage-Limiting Structure
The nacre structure making *p the inner*layers of a mollusk shell has
been imitated in the development of materials for use in super-tough jet
engine blades. Some 95% of the mother-of-pearl consists of chalk, yet
thanks to its composite structure it is 3,000 times tougher than bulk chalk.
Harun Yahya
Calcium carbonate
Organic mortar
The internal structure of mother-of-pearl resem-
*les*a bri*k*wal* an* consists of *late*et* held**o-
gether with organic mortar. Cracks caused by im-
pacts change direction as they attempt to pass
through this mortar, which stops them in their
tracks. (Julian Vincent, “Trick* of Nature,” New
Scientist, 40.)
When examined under the mi-
croscope, microscopic platelets
8 micrometers across and 0.5
micrometers thick can be
seen, arranged in layers (1
micrometer = 10 -6 meter).
These platelets are com-
posed of a dense and crys-
talline form of calcium car-
bonate, yet they can be
joined together, thanks to a
s*icky silk-like prot*in. 27
This combination pro-
vides toughness in two
ways. When mother-of-pearl
is stressed by a heavy load,
any cracks that form begin to
spread, but change direction
as they attempt to pass
through the protein layers.
*his di**erses the force im-
posed, thus preventing frac-
tures. A second strengthening
factor is that whenever a
crack does form, the protein layers stretch out into strands across the frac-
ture, absorbing the energy that would permit the cracks to continue. 28
The structure that reduces damage to mother-o*-pearl has become a
subject of study by a great many scient*sts. That the resistance *n nature’s
materials is based on such logical, rational methods doubtlessly indicates
the presence of a superior intelligence. As this example shows, God clear-
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
ly reveals evidence *f His existence and the superior might *nd power of
His creation by means of His infinite knowledge and wisdom. As He
states in one verse:
Everything in the heavens and everything in*the earth belongs to
Him. God*is the Rich Beyond Need, the Praiseworthy. (Q*r’an, 22:
The Hardness of Wood Is Hidden in Its Design
In contrast to the substances in other living things, vegetable com-
posites con*ist more of cellulose fibers*than coll*gen. Wood’s hard, *esis-
tant structure derives fro* producing this cellulose—a hard material that
is not soluble i* water. This property of cellulose makes wood so versatile
Harun Yahya
in construction. Thanks to cellulose, timber structures keep standing for
hundreds of years. D*scribed as tension-bearing and matchless, cellulose
i* ***d***** m*r***xte**iv**y *ha***the* bu****ng*m*t****l*********d*ng*,
bridges, furniture and any number of items.
Because wood absorbs the energy from low-velocity impacts, it’s
highly effective at restricting damage to one specific location. In particu-
lar, damage is reduced the most when the impact occurs at right angles to
the direction of the grain. Diagnostic research has shown that different
types of wood exhibit different levels of resistance. One of the factors is
density, since denser woods absorb more energy during impact. The num-
ber of vessels in the wood, their size and distribution, are also important
factors in reducing impact deformation. 29
Right: Wood consists of tube-like
fibers which give wood its resistant
Below right: Wood’s raw material,
known as cellulose, possesses a com-
plicated chemical structure. If the
chemical bonds or atoms comprising
cellulose were different, then wood
w*uldn’t be so strong and flexible.
c: Fiber axis
Molecule (<10Å)
unit cell
Micro fibers (20-200Å)
Crystalline package with
irregular interface
Plant cell walls
Left: A structure mode*ed on wood for the mak-
in* *f bullet-proof clothing. If wood had a differ-
ent structure, it could not possess such resilient
1. Carefully placed fibers to imitate the spiral
winding of the tube walls in wood.
2. Resin reinforced with glass fibers.
3. Corrugated layer between flat plates.
4. Layers arr*nged to imitate the tube structure of
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
******m*t*r*a**, *****ed on*t*e*s****-
ture of wood, are believed to be suffi-
ciently strong to be used in bullet-proof
vests. (Julian Vincent, “Tricks of
Nature,” New Scientist, 40.)
The Second World War's
Mosquito aircraft, which so far have
shown the greatest tolerance to dam-
age, were made by gluing dense ply-
wood layers between lighter strips of
balsa wood. The hardness of wood
makes it a most reliable material.
When it does break, the cracking takes
place so slowly that one can watch it
happen with the naked eye,*thus giv-
ing time to take preca*tions. 30
Wood consists of parallel
columns of long, hollow cells placed
end to end, and surrounded by spirals
of cellulose fibers. Moreover, these
cells are encl*sed in a complex poly-
mer structure made of resin. Wound
in a spiral, these layers form 80% of
the tota* thickness of the cell wall and, together, bear the main weight.
When a wood cell collapses in on itself, it absorbs the energy of impact by
breaking away from the surrounding cells. Even if the crack runs between
the fibers, still the wood is not deformed. Broken wood is nevertheless
strong enough to support a significant load.
Ma*erial made by imitating wood’s design is 50 times more durable
than other synthetic materials*in use today. 31 Wood is currently imitated
in materials being developed for protection against high-velocity parti-
cles, such as shrapnel from bombs*or bullets.
As these *ew examples sh*w, natu*al substance* pos*es* a most in-
telligent design. The structures and resistance of mother-of-pearl and
wood are no coincidence. There is evident, conscious design in these ma-
Harun Yahya
terials. Every detail of their flawless design—from the fineness of the lay-
ers to their density and the number of vessels—has been carefully
planned and created to bring about resistance. *n one verse, *od reveals
that He has created everything around us:
What is in the heavens and in the earth belongs to God. God en-
compasses all things. (Qur’an, 4: 126)
Spider Silk Is Stronger Than Steel
A great many insects—moths and butterflies, for example—produce
silk, although there are considerable differences between these substances
and spider silk.
A*cording to scientists, spider thread is o*e of the strong*st materi-
als known. If we set down all of a spider web’s characteri*tics, the result-
in* li*t will be*a*very long one. Yet even just a few examples of the prop-
erties of spider silk are enough to make the point: 32
• The *il* thread spun by spiders, measuring just*one-thousandth of
a millimeter across, is five times st*onger than steel of the same thickness.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
• It can st*etch up to four
times its own length.
• I* is also so light that
enough thread to stretch clear
around the planet w**ld
*eigh o*l* 320 grams.
These individual charac-
teristics may be found in var-
ious other materials, but it is a
most exceptional situation for
them all to come together at
once. It’s not easy to find a
material that’s both strong
and elastic. Strong steel cable,
for ins*an*e* is *ot a* elastic
as rubber and can deform
over time. And while rubber
cables don’t easily deform,
they aren’t strong enough to
be*r heavy loads.
How can the thread
spun by such a tiny creature have properties vastly superior to rubber and
steel, product of centuries of accumulated human knowledge?
Spider silk’s superiority is hidden in its chemical structure. Its raw
material is a protein called keratin, which consists of helical chains of
amino acids cross-linked to one another. Keratin is the building block for
such widely different natural substances as hair, nails, feathers and skin.
In all the substances it compr*ses, its protective property is especially im-
portant. Furthermore, that keratin consists of amino acids bound by loose
hydrogen links makes it very elastic, as described in the American maga-
Spider silk, possessing an exceedingly complex
structure, is but one example of God’s incom-
parable art *nd infinite wisdom.
Harun Yahya
Silk produc-
tion region
Silk glands
zine Science News: “On the human scale, a web resembling a fishing net could
catch a passenger plane.” 33
On the underside of the tip of the spider's abdomen are three pairs of
spinnerets. Each of these spinnerets is studded with many hairlike tubes
called spigots. Th* spigots lead to silk glands inside the abdomen, each of
which produces a different type of silk. As a result of the harmony be-
tween them, a variety of silk threads *re produced. Inside the spider’s
body, pumps, valves and pressure systems with exceptionally developed
properties are employed during the production of the raw silk, which is
then drawn out*through the spigots. 34
Most importantly, the spider can alter the pressure in the spigots at
will, which also changes the structure of molecules making up the liquid
keratin. The valves’ control mechanism, the diameter, resistance and elas-
ticity of the thread can all be altered, thus making t*e thread assume de-
*ired characteristics witho*t alte*ing its chemical st*ucture. If deeper
changes in the silk are desired, then another gland must be brou*ht into
operation. And finally, thanks to the perfect use of its back legs, the spider
can put the thread on the desired track.
Biomimetics: Technology Im*tates Nature
Once the spider’s chemical miracle
can be replicated fully, then a great many
useful materials can be produced: safety
belts with the*requisite elasticity, very
strong surgical sutures that leave no
scars, and bulletproof fabrics. Moreover,
no harmful or poisonous substances
need to be used in their production.
Spiders’ silk possesses the most ex-
traordinary properties. On account of its
high resistance to tension, ten times
more energy is required to break spider
silk than other, similar biological materi-
als. 35
As a result, much more energy needs to be expended in order to
break a piece of spider silk of the sa*e size as a nylon thread. One main
reason why spiders are able to produce such strong silk is that they man-
age to add assisting compounds with a regular structure by controlling
the cry*tallization and folding of the basic protein compounds. Since the
weaving material consists of liquid crystal, spiders expend a minimum of
energy while doing this.
The thread produced by spiders is much stronger than the known
natural or synthetic fibers. But the thread they produce *annot be collect-
ed and used directly, as can the silks of many other insects. For that*rea-
son, the only current alternative is artificial production.
Researchers are engaged in wide-ranging studies on how spiders
produce their silk. Dr. Fritz Vollrath, a zoologist at the university of
Aarhus in Denmark, studied the garden spider Araneus diadematus and
succeeded in uncovering a large part of the process. He found that spiders
harden their silk by acidifying it. In particular, he examined the duct
through which the silk passes before exiting the spider's body. Before en-
A detailed view of the spigots.
Harun Yahya
tering the duct, the silk con*ists of liquid proteins. In the duct, specialized
cells apparently draw water away from the silk proteins. Hydrogen atoms
taken from the water are pumped into another part of the duct, creating
an acid bath. As the silk proteins make contact with the acid, they fold and
f*rm bridges with one another* hardening the silk, which is "stronger and
more elast*c than Kevlar .] the strongest man-made fiber," as Vollrath puts
it. 36
Kevlar, a reinforcing material used in bulletproof vests and tires, and
made *hr*ugh advan*ed te*hnology, is the st*ong*st man*ade syntheti*.
Yet spider thread possesses properties that are far superior to Kevlar. As
well as its being very strong, spider silk can also be *e-processed and re-
used by the spider who spun it.
If scientists manage to replicate the internal processes taking place
To catch their prey, spiders construct exceedingly high-quality webs that stop a fly mov-
ing through the air by absorbing its energy. The taut cable used on aircraft carriers to
halt jets when they land resembles the syste* that spiders empl*y. Operating in exact-
ly the same way as the spider’s web, these cables halt a jet weighin* several tons, mov-
ing at 250 kmph, by absorbing its kinetic energy.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
This example alone is enough to demonstrate the great wisdom of God, the Creator all
things *n nature: Spiders produce a thread five time* strong*r than steel* Kevlar, t*e
product of our most advanced technology, is made at high temperatures, using petro-
leum-derived materials and sulfuric acid. The energy this process requires is very high,
and its byproducts are exceedingly toxic. Ye* from*the point of view of strength, Kevlar
is much weaker than spider silk. (“Biomimicry,” Your Planet Earth; http://www.your-
inside the spider—if protein folding can be made flawless and the weav-
ing material's genetic information added, then it will be possible to in-
dustrially produce silk-based threads with a great many special proper-
ties. It is therefore thought that if the spider thread weaving process can
*e understood, the leve* of success in the manufacture of man-made ma-
ter*als will be **p*ove*.
This thread, which scientists are only now joining forces to investi-
gate, has been produced flawlessly by spiders for at least 380 million
years. 37 This, no doubt, is one of the proofs of God’s perfect creation.
Neither is there any doubt that all of th*se extraordinary phenomena are
under His control, taking place by His will. As one verse states, “There is
no creature He does not hold by the forelock” (Qur’an, 11: 56).
Harun Yahya
The Mechanism for Producing Spider Thread Is Superior to Any
Textile Machine
Spiders produce silks with
different characteristics for dif-
ferent purposes. Diatematus, for
instance, can use its silk glands to
produce seven different types of
silk—similar to production tech-
niques employed in modern tex-
tile machines. Yet those ma-
chines’ enormous size can’t be
compared with the spider’s few
cubic millimeters silk-producing
organ. Another superior feature
of its silk is the way that the spi-
der can recycle it, able to produce
new thread by consuming its
damaged web.
iber-optic technology, which has recently be-
gun to be employed,*uses ca*les capable of
transmitting light and high-capacity informa-
tion. What if someone were to tell you that
living things have been using this technology
for millions of years? These are organisms you know very well,
but whose superior design a great many people never even con-
Because so many look at their world around them in a*su-
perficial way, out of famil*arity, they never see the examples of
superior design in the living things
that God has created. Bu* in fact, all
living things are full of secrets. Asking
why and how is enough
t* let you raise this
curtain of familiarity.
Anyone who thinks
ab*ut th*se quest*ons
will r*alize that
everything we see
around *s is the
work of a Creator pos-
sessed of reason and
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
All-Powerful Lord. As an example, take the photosynthesis that plants
carry out—a miracle of creation, whose mysteries have not yet been un-
Photosynthesis is the process whereby green plants turn light into
carbohydrates that*human beings and animals*can consume. Perhaps *t
*irst sight, this description might not*seem too remarkable, yet bi*-
chemists believe that artificial photosynthesis could easily change the
whole world.
Plants carry out photosynthesis by means of a complex string of
events. The exact nature of these processes is still unclear. Just this feature
*lone is enough to silence the proponents of the theory of evolution.
Professor Ali Demirsoy describes very well the dilemma that photosyn-
thesis represents for evo*utionist scientists:
Photosynthesis is a rather co*plicated event and appears impossible to emerge
in the organe*les within the cell. That is be*ause it is i**os*ible*for all the stages
to come about at once, and meaningless for them to do so separately. 38
Plants trap sunlight in natural solar cell parts known as chloroplasts.
In the same way, we store in batteries the energy w* ob*ain from artificial
solar panels, which turn light into electrical energy.
A plant cell’s low power output necessitates the use of a great many
“panels,” in the form of leaves. It’s enough for leaves, like solar panels, to
face the sun in order to meet human beings’ energy needs. When the
chloroplasts’ functions are fully replicated, tiny solar batteries will be able
to operate equipment requiring a great deal of energy. Spacecraft and ar-
tificial satellites will be able to operate using solar energy alone, with no
need for any other energy source.
Plants, which possess such superior capabilities and astound the sci-
entists who try to imitate them, bow their heads to God,*like all other liv-
ing things. This is revealed in a verse:
Shrubs*and trees both bend*in worship. (Qur’an, 55: 6)
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
What mankind has to lea*n from plants isn't limited to solar cells. Plants are opening up
many new horizons, from construction to the perfume industry. Chemical engineers pro-
ducing deodorants and soaps are now trying to produce beautiful fragrances in the lab-
oratory by imitating the scents of flowers. The scents produced by many*famous*hou*-
es, such as Christian Dior, Jacques Fath, Pierre Balmain, contain floral essences found in
nature. (“The History of Parfume;”*http://*ww.pa*f*ms*affy.com/histor*.html)
Protected Surfaces
Any surface can be damaged by dirt, or even by bright light. That is
why scientists have developed furniture and car polishes, and liquids to
Haru* Yahya
block ultraviolet rays and protect against any possible wear and tear. In
nature also, animals and plants produce in their own cells a variety of
su*stances to pr*tect*th*ir outer sur*aces against external damage. The
complex chemical compounds produced by the bodies of living things as-
t*und scientists, and des*gners seek to imitate many examples.
Coating wooden surfaces is important to protect them from dirt and
wear and tear, particularly against water, which can enter and rot soft tim-
The external *urf*ces of leaves are covered with a thin, polis*ed coating that wate*-
proofs the plant. This protection is essential because carbon dioxide, which plants ab-
sorb from the*air and is essential to their survival, is found between the leaf cells. If
these spaces between the cells filled with rainwater, the carbon dioxide level would fall
and the proces* of *hotosynthesis, essential to plants’ survival, wou*d slow down. But
thanks to this thin coati*g on their leaves’ surface, plants are able to carry on photo-
synthesis with no difficulty.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
ber. But did you know that the first wood coatings were made from nat-
ural oils and insect secretions?
Many protective substances *sed in our daily lives were actually
used long before in nature by living things. Wood polish is just one ex-
amp*e. The hard*shells of insec*s also *rotect them*aga*nst water and
damage from the outside.
Insects’ shells and exoskeletons are *einforced by a protein called
sclerotin, making them among the hardest surfaces in the natural world.
Furthermore, an insect’s protective chitin covering never
loses its color and brightness. 39
Clearly, considering all this, the systems con-
struction firms use to cover and protect external sur-
faces will be m*ch more effective if they have a com-
position similar to those found in insects.
Harun Yahya
The Constantly Self-Cleaning Lotus
The lotus plant (a white *ater lily) grows in the dirty, muddy bottom
of lakes and ponds, yet despite this, its leaves are always clean. That is be-
cause whenever the smallest particle of dust lands on the plant, it imme-
diately waves the leaf, directing t*e dust particles to one particular spot.
Raindrops falling on the leaves are sent to that same place, to thus wash
the dirt away.
This property of the lotus led researchers to design a new house
paint. Researchers began working on how to develop paints that wash
clean in the rain, i* much the same w*y as lotu* leaves do. As a resu*t*of
this inves*i*ation, a German company called ISPO produced a house
paint brand-named Lotusan. On the market in Europe and Asia, the
product even came with a guarantee that it would stay clean for five years
without detergents or sandblasting. 40
Of necessity, many living things possess natural features that protect
their external surfaces. There is no doubt, however, that neither the lotus’s
external structure nor insects’ chitin layer came about by themselves.
These living things are unaware of the superior properties they possess. It
is God Who creates them, together with all their features. One verse
describes God’s art of cre-
ation in these terms:
He is God—the
Creator, the Maker,
the Giver of Form. To
Him belong the Most
Beautiful Names.
Everything in the heavens
and earth glorifies Him. He
is the Almighty, the All-
Wise. (Qur’an, 59: 24)
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
A lotus leaf with water on it
During his microscopic research, Dr. Wilhelm Barthlott at the University of
Bonn reali*ed th*t leaves *h*t r*qui**d the least*c*ea*ing we*e those
with the roughest surfaces. On the surface of the lotus leaf, the
very cleanest of these, Dr. Barthlott found tiny
points, like a bed of nails. When a Speck of
dust or dirt falls onto the leaf, it teeters pre-
cariously on these points. When a droplet of
water rolls across these tiny points, it picks up the
speck, which is only poorly attached, and carries it
away. In other words, the lotus has a self-cleaning
leaf. This feature has inspired researchers to pro-
duce a house paint called LOTUSAN, guaranteed to
stay clean for five years. (Jim Robbins, “Engineers Ask Nature for Design
Advice,” Ne**York Times, December 11, *001.)
How a raindrop cle*ns a
lotus leaf
The effect of a raindrop
on a normal surface
The effect of raindrops on
a building e*teri*r c*vered
with Lo*usan.
Harun Yahya
Plants and New Car Design
When designing its new ZIC (Zero Impact Car)
model, the Fiat motor company copied the way trees
and shrubs divide themselves into branches.
Designers built a small channel along the middle of
the car, in a similar way as in a plant's ste*, and
placed in that channel batteries to provide the car with
the energy it requires. The car seats were inspired by the plant
in the illustration and, just as in that original plant, the seats
wer* at*ached direc*ly to the channel. The car’s roof
featured a honeycomb structure similar to that in
seaweed. This structure made the ZIC both light
and strong. 41
In a field like automobile technology that
freely displays the very latest innovations, a sim-
ple plant, living in nature since the very first day it
came into being thousands of years ago, provided
engineers and designers with a source of inspira-
tion. Evo*utionists—who maintain that life came
about by chance and whose forms developed*over
time* always moving in the direction of improve-
ment—find this and similar events difficult to
How can human beings, possessed
of consciousness and reason, learn
from plants—devoid of any intelli-
gence or knowledge, which can-
not even move—and imple-
ment what they learn to
achieve ever more practical
results? The features that
B**m***tics: Technolog* Imi*a*es *ature
plants and other organisms display cannot, of course, be explained away
as coincidences. As proofs of creation, they represent a serious quandary
for evolutionists.
*lants that Give *ff Alarm Signals
Nearly everyone imagines that plants are unable to combat danger,
which is why they easily become fodder for insects, herbivores, and oth-
er animals. Yet research has shown that on the contrary, plants use amaz-
ing tactics to repel, even overcom* their enemies.
To keep leaf-chewing insects at bay, for example, plants sometimes
produce noxious chemicals and in a few cases, chemicals to attract other
predators to prey on those first ones. Both tactics are no doubt very clever.
In the field of agriculture, in fact, efforts*are going on to imitate this very
useful defense strategy. Jonathan Gershenzon, researching the genetics of
plant defenses at Germany’s Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology,
believ*s that if this intelligent strategy can be imitated properly, then*in
the future, non-toxic forms of agricultural pest control could be provid-
ed. 42
When attacked by pests, some plants release volatile organic chemi-
*als tha* attract p*edators an* parasitoi*s, whi*h lay *heir eggs inside the
living body of pests. The larvae which hatch out inside the pest grow by
feeding on the pest from within.*This indirect strategy thus eliminates
harmful organisms that might damage the *rop.
Again, it is by che*ical means that the plant realizes that a pest is
eating its leaves. The *lant gives off such an ala*m s*gnal not because it
“knows” it’s losing its leaves, but rather as a response to chemicals in the
pest species’ saliva. Although superficially, this phenomenon appears to
be quite simple, actually quite a number of points need to be considered:
1) How does the plant perceive chemicals in the pest's saliva?
Harun Yahya
The manduca moth and
the tobacco plant
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
*) How *oes *he plant know that it will be free* from the pest's rav-
ages when it gives off the alarm signal?
3) How does it know that the signal it gives off will attract preda-
4) What causes the plant to send its signal to insects that feed on its
5) **** s**na**t*e pl*** g*ve**off****c*e*ic**, rat*** **** ***itory.
The chemicals employed by insects have a most complex structure. The
slightest deficiency or error in the formula, and the signal may lose *ts ef-
ficacy. How is the plant thus able to fine-tune this chemical signal?
No doubt it is impossible for a plant, lacking a brain, to arrive at a so-
lution to danger, to analyze chemicals like a scientist, even to produce
such a *ompound and carry *ut a planned strategy* Very **finitely,*indi-
rectly overcoming an enemy is the*work of a superior intelligence. That
intelligence’s possessor is God, Creator of the plants with all their flaw-
less characteristics and Who inspires them to do what they can to protect
Therefore, current biomimetic research is mak-
Manduca moth caterpillar
ing a great effort to imitate the astonishing intelli-
gence that God displays in*all livin* things.
One group of researchers, from both the
International Centre of Insect Physiology and
Ecology in Nairobi, Kenya and Britain's Institute of
Arable*Crops Research, carried out a study on this
subject. To remove
pests among maize
and*s*rghum, their
team planted species
that the stem-borers
like to eat, pulling the
Harun Yahya
pests from the crop. Among the crops, they growed species that repel
stem-borers *nd attract parasitoids. In*such f*elds, they found, the num-
ber of plants infeste* with stem-borers dropped by more than 80%.
Further applications of this incomparable solution observed in plants will
make for still further advances. 43
Wild tobacco plants in Utah are subject to attack by caterpillars of the
moth Manduca quinquemaculata, the eggs of which are a favorite food of
the bug Geocoris pallens. Thanks to volatile chemicals that the tobacco
plant releases, the G. pallens is attracted, and number of M. quinquemacu-
lata caterpillars is reduced. 44
Fiber Optic Design in the Ocean Depths
Rossella racovitzae, a species of marine sponge, possesses spicules
guiding light as optic fibers do, which of course is employed in the very
latest technology. The optical fibers can instantly transport vast amounts
of information encoded as light pulses across tremendous distances.
Transm**tin* *a**r l*g*t down a***b*r-****c *a*le ma*es***ss*b*e co*m*-
nications unimaginably greater than with cables made of ordinary mate-
rials. In fact, a str*nd no thicker than a hair, containing 100 optical fibers,
can transmit 40,000 diff*rent*sound channels.
This species of sponge which lives in the cold, dark depths of
Antarctic seas is easily able to collect the light it requires for photosyn-
thesis thanks to its thorn-shaped protrusions of optical fibers, and is a
source of light for its surroundings. This enables both the sponge itself
and other living things that benefit from its ability to collect and transmit
light to survive. Single-celled algae attach themselves to the sponge and
obtain from it the light they need to survive.
Fiber optics ** on* of the most advanced technologies of recent years.
Japanese engineers use this technology to transmit solar rays to those
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
parts of skyscrapers that receive no direct light. Giant lens*s sited in a sky-
scraper’s roof focus the sun’s rays on the ends of fiber optic transmitters,
which then send light to even the very darkest parts of the buildings.
This sponge lives at some 100 to 200 meters depth, off the shores of
the Antarctic Ocean, under icebergs in what is virtually total darkness.
Sunlight is of the*greatest importance to its survival. The creature man-
ages to solve this problem by means of optical fibers that collect solar light
in a most effective manner.
Scientists are amazed that a living thing should have used the fiber
optic principle, utilized by high-tech industries, in such an environment
for the past 600 million years. Ann M. Mescher, a mechanical engineer and
*olymer fiber specialist at the University of Washington, expresses it in
these terms:
It’s fascinating that there’s a creature that produces these fibers at low temper-
ature with these unique mechanical properties and fairly good optical proper-
ties. 45
Brian D. Flinn, University of Washington materials scientist, de-
scribes the superior structure in this sponge:
It’s not something they’re going to put into telecommunications*in the next two
o* three years. It’s something th*t might be 20 yea*s off* 46
This all demonstrates that the living things within nature harbor a
great many models for human beings. God, Who ha* designed everything
down to the finest detail, has created these designs for mankind to learn
from and think upon. This is revealed in the verses:
In the creation of the heavens and the Earth, and the alternation of
night and day, there are signs for people with intelligence: those
who remember God, standing, sitting and lying on their sides, and
reflect on the creation of the heavens and the Earth: “Our Lord, You
have not created this for nothing. Glory be to You! So safeguard us
*rom the punishment of the Fire.” (Qur’an, 3: 190-191)
Optical fibers
Rossella racovitzae
ust about everyone interested in motor vehi-
cles knows the importance of gearboxes and jet
engines. Few, however, are aware that there are
gearboxes and jet engines in nature, which
possess designs far superior to those employed
by man.
Gearboxes allow you to change gears in the vehicle so that
the motor is used most efficiently. Natural gearboxes work along
the same principles as those in cars. Flies, for example, us* a nat-
u*al *e********at*p*o****s***r*e-speed*gea***if**c***e*ted to i*s
wings. Thanks to this system, a fly can instantaneously accelerate
or slow down by flapping its wings at the desired speed while in
the air. 47
In cars, at least four gears are used to transmit the power
from the engine to the wheels. It is possible to drive smoothly on-
ly when the gears are used in succession, from low gear to high,
and back again. Instead of gears in cars, which are
heavy and take up a lot of room, fl*es have a
mechan*sm that ta*es *p o*ly a f*w cubic mil-
l*meters. Thanks to their far more functional
mechanism, flies can beat their wings with ease.
The squid, octopus and nautilus employ a
*ropella*t f*r*e similar*to the princ**le use* by
jet engines. To understand just how effective
this force is, consider that the
spe*i*s*o* ****d know* *s
Loligo vulgaris can travel
in the water at speeds up
to 32 kilometers [20
A jet engine takes in air from one
end and expels it from the other at
a much greater speed. The jet en-
gines *n *e*t*ca* ta*e-o***airc*aft
like the Harrier have nozzles to di-
rect the exhaust down. Thanks to
this system, the Harrier can land
and take off vertically. After take-
off, the nozzles are pointed back-
wards, so that the aircraft flies for-
The squid use a form of prop*lsion
system similar to jet planes. A
squid's body contains two open
spaces like pockets. Water taken in
from them is drawn into a power-
ful elas*ic bag o* contra*ting mus-
cles. In this bag is a backward-
pointing nozzle. The muscles con-
tract, expelling water out of that
nozzle at high speed. The animal
can reach speeds of up to 32 km (20
miles) an hour to flee predators,
sometimes even leaping out of the
water and onto the decks of ships.
(Phil Gates, Wild Technology, 38.)
Harun Yahya
Known by its scientific name of Ecballium ela-
terium, the squirting cucumbe* disperses its
fruit’s seeds in a sudden explosion. As the fruit
ripens, it fills with a slimy juice, which gradual-
ly creates pressure. Through the buildup of in-
ternal pressure, it t*en propels its seeds with
an initial velocity of 56 km (35 miles) per hour.
(Helmut Tributsch, How Life Learned to Live,
Cambridge: MIT Press, 1982, 59.)
Wh*n**hreatened by a starf*sh**t*e
scallop suddenly closes the two
halves of its shell. It thus expels a
quantity of water in such a way as to
set up jet propulsion and forces itself
miles] an hour. 48
The nautilus, an incompa-
rable example in this regard,
resembles an octopus and may
be compared to a ship with a
jet engine. It takes *ater in
through a tube beneath its
head and then shoots the water
out. While the water travels in
one direction, the nautilus is
propelled in the other.
Another feature makes
scientists envious of these crea-
tures: Their na*ural jet engines
remain impervious to the high
pressure of the deep sea.
Moreover, the systems that let
them move are both silent and
extremely li*ht. In fact, the
nautilus’ superior design
served as a model for sub-
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
100-Million-Year-Old Technolog* Under the Sea
When a subm*rine fills its ballast tanks with water, the ship becomes
heavier than water and sinks toward the bottom. If water in the tanks is
emptied out by means of compressed air, then the submarine surfaces.
The nautilus employs the same technique. In its body there is a 19-cm
(7.48 in) spiral organ rather like a snail’s shell, inside which are 38 inter-
connected “diving” chambers. To empty out the water; it also needs com-
pressed air—but where does the nautilus find the air it needs?
By biochemical means, the nautilus produces a special gas in its body
and transfers this gas to the chambers, expelling water from them to reg-
ulate its buoyancy. This allows the nautilus *o dive or surface when hunt-
ing or chased by predators.
A submarine can only
venture safely to a depth of
about 400 meters (1,310 feet),
whereas the nautilus can eas-
ily descend to a depth of 450
meters (1,500 feet). 49
In order to dive or
surfac*, submarines
employ special com-
partments that serve
the same purpose as
those in the nautilus.
When these compartments (tanks) are
filled with air, the submarine floats. When
the*air is r*placed*wi*h wa*er, it s*nks* The
number of tanks that are filled with water
determines the underwater depth at
which the submarine runs.
Harun Yahya
Submarines’ diving techniques resemble
those of fish, which are able to control
their rela*iv**de**ity in o*d*r to r*s**or
dive in the water. In their bodies, bony
fish have a swim bl*dder that gives them
their buoyancy. When air is added to the
swim bladder, by diffusion through the
blood vessels in the bla*der walls, the
fish becomes less dense over*ll; when air
is removed the fish becomes more dense.
By changing the volume of air in the
bladder, the fish’s density can be made
equal to that of the surrounding water at
a given depth.
Such*a d*pth is very dangerou* to many l*vin* things* But desp*te
this, the nautilus remains unaffected, its shell is not crushed by the pres-
sure and its body suffers no harm.
Another very important point needs to be considered here. The nau-
tilus has possessed this system, which can withstand the pressure at some
450 meters, since the day it was created. How c*n it have designed this
special structure all by itself? On its own, could the nautilus have devel-
oped the gas to obtain the necessary compressed air to empty out the wa-
ter in its shell? It is definitely imp*ssible for the creature to know how to
create the chemical reaction to produce gas, much less build the structures
in its body necessary to bring that chemical reaction about, nor to struc-
ture a shell capable of*withstanding tons of water pressure.
This superior design is the work of God, Who flawlessly created
everything, with no prior models. God’s title of al-Badi’ (the Innovative
Creator), is revealed in the Qur’an:
He is the Originator of the heavens and the Earth (Qur'an, 6: 101)
The depth of a submarine in water
is adjusted by special command
systems, the product of human in-
telligence, after many years of en-
gineeri*g research. No ra*i*nal
person can claim that these devices
came about by chance.
Evolutionists, however, make the
unrealistic claim that although the
nautilus can do exactly what a sub-
marine does, it is actually the prod-
uct of blind chance.
This 100-million-year-old nautilus fossil is proof that the animal never un-
derwent evolution. God created the creature in an instant, and with all its
flawless design.
ound moves through air and water in the
*orm *f wa*es* wh**h*b**nce back i* they
strike an object. If you possess the necessary
technology and knowledge, these rebounding
waves can provide a great deal of information
about the body they encountered, such as its distance from the
source, its size, and the direction and speed of its motion.
This tech*ology to locate objects by means of sound and
pressure waves was developed in the 20 th centu*y, actually for
military purposes. But today, it is also used to locate sunken
ships and for m*pping the*ocean floor. However, millions of
year* ago* long before man discovered this technology, living
*hings *n n*ture were u*ing the soun* waves*they spre*d
around them in order to survive.
Dolphins,*bats, f*sh an* moths have all posse*sed this sys-
tem, known as sonar, ever since they were created. What is
more, their systems are much more sen*itive and functional
than those employed by human beings today.
Bats’ Sonar Goes Far Beyond the Bounds of Human
The U.S. Defense Department set out to implement princi-
ples of bat sonar in its own system of sonar, an indispensable
method for locating submarines under the surface of the sea.
According to a report in Science, one of America’s best-known
magazines, the Defense Department set aside a special alloca-
tion to pay for this project.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
It has long been known that bats*use their sonar syste* to find *heir
way around in the pitch dark. Recently, researchers have uncovered new
secrets of how they do it. According to their research, the brown insectiv-
orous bat, Eptesicus fuscus, can process two million overlapping echoes a
second. Furthermore, it can perceive these echoes with a resolution of on-
ly 0.3 millimeters (1/80 th of an inch). According to these figures, bat's
sonar is three times more sensitive than its man-made equivalent. 50
Bats' sonar navigational skills teach us a great deal about flying in
the dark. Research carried out with infrared thermal imaging cameras and
u*tra**und detectors af*ord** cons*de*a**e *nformati*n **out how bats
fly in search of prey at night.
Bats can seize an insect from mi*-air as the insect rises from the
grass. Some bats even plunge into bushes to capture their prey. It’s no
easy task to seize an insect buzzing in the air using only reflected sound
waves. But if you consider that the insect is among the bushes, and sound
waves bounce back from all the leaves surrounding it, you will grasp
what an impressive task the bat actually performs.
In a situation like that, bats reduce their sonar squeals, to prevent
their becoming confused by echoes from the surrounding vegetation. Yet
by itself, this tactic isn’t enough to enabl* bats to perceive the objects in-
dividually, because they also need to distinguish the arrival time and di-
rection of the overlapping echoes. 51
Bats also use their sonar when flying over water to drink, and in
some cases, to capture prey from the ground. Their expert maneuverabil-
ity can best be seen when one bat chases another. Understanding how
th*y can do this will let us produce a wide range of technological prod-
ucts, especially equipment for sonar navigation and detection. Moreover,
bats’ broad-band sonar system is also imitated today in mine-sweeping
technology. 52
Harun Yahya
As we have seen, the properties of living things benefit us in a very
large number of ways. In one verse, God draws attention to the uses in an-
And there is certainly a lesson for you in your livestock. We give
you to drink from what is in their bellies and there are many ways
in which you benefit from them (Qur’an, 23: 21)
With their highly developed radar equipment, the AWACS (Airborne Warning And
Control System) in Boeing 767 jets is used for early war*ing and target control purpos-
es. AWACS, effective in the air and on land, can*identify ships on the surface only and
fails when it c*mes to submarines under the water (which are invisible to AWACS).
(Bezen Çetin, "Hava Savunma Sistemleri," (Air Defense Systems) Bilim ve Teknik, Jan.
1995, 33.)
In identifying under-
**t** t**g*t*****e
Greater Bulldog Bat (Noctilio
leporinusi) is far superior to
AWACS. This bat’s sonar system en-
ables it to hunt fish. It’s no exaggera-
tion to think of the bat as a kind of ad-
vanced warplane with early warning capa-
bilities. When it locates a fish near the surface
of the water, it goes into a dive. On the large feet of the bat, which are ideally de-
signed for *eizing fish, there are sup*r*sharp, powerful *laws. As it approache* its prey,
the bat drops its feet below the water, where its thin claws meet no water resistance.
These large, sharp and pointed claws give the bat a great advantage when it comes to
gripping its prey. (*More about bat e*holocation;” http://www.szgdocent.org/re-
Some moth species are able to confuse the bats’ detection system by means of the
high-pitched squeaks they emit. If the bat can't locate the moth, it’s*unable to catch it.
(Phil Gates, Wi*d *echno*ogy, 53.) *he EA-6B P*owler a*rc*a*t curr*ntly used by the U.S.
military imit*te these moths’ tactics. It monitors the electromagnetic spectrum and ac-
tively denies an adversary the use of radar and communications. (“EA-6B Prowler;”
EA-6B Prowler
*a*u* Yahya
Dolphin Sound Waves and Sonar Technology
From a spe**al organ*known as the*melon i* its *ead, a*dolph*n can
sometimes produce as many as 1,200 clicks a second. Simply by moving
its h*ad, this *reatu*e *s able to transmit*the waves in the directi** i* wish-
es. **e* **e*sound wav*s s**ike an obj*ct, they are ref*ect*d*and retu*n
to the dolphin. The echoes reflected from the object pass through the dol-
phin's*lowe***aw to t*e middle ear, and *rom th*re to the bra*n. *hanks to
the enormous spe*d a* which these data are interpreted, very accurate
and sensitive information is obtained. The echoes let the dolphin deter-
mine the direction *f movement, speed**nd size of th* object that reflects
them. 53
The *olphin sonar is so sensitive that it can even*identify *ne single
fish from among an entire shoal. 54 It can also distinguish between two
separate metal coins, three kilometers away in the pitch dark. 55
In the pre*ent day, the instrument known as SONAR*56 is used to
identify targets and their directions for ships and su*marines. Sonar
works on exactly the same principle as that employed by the dolphin.
At Yale University, a robot was developed to be used for exploring
Harun Yahya
Scientists and engineers have built
several robots based on the sonar de-
signs in nature. One of these, the ro-
bot named “koala,”*constructed by the
K-Team Company, has six sonar units
and was designed for remote-control
exploration purposes.
Roman Kuc
new environments. An
electrical engi*eering pro-
fessor Roman Kuc
equipped the robot with a
sonar system imitating the
one used by dolphins.
Professor Kuc, who spent
10 years working on ultra-
sound sensors and robot-
ics research, admitted, “We decided to take a c*oser look a* how echolocation is
used in nature to see if we might be missing something.” 57
Imagine that someone told you that under the sea, sound waves
travel at 1,500 mete*s a second; then asked you to calculate, i* your s*b-
marine sent out sound waves that came back in four seconds’ time, how
far away was the object that reflected them.
You would calculate that you were three kilomet*rs away. Dolphins
are also capable of comfortably performing similar calculations, but they
know neither t*e speed at which their sound waves travel through the
water**nor how to multiply*an**divide* The* *o**t carry *** *ny of these
functions; all the animals do is behave the way God inspires them.
Evolutionists claim that dolphins’
sonar emerged as the result of a series
of changes caused by different factors.
(“National Geographic TV’s Undersea
Fairy Tales;” www.darwinism-
s.php) This is as senseless and mean-
ingless as claiming that wind or earth
tremors brought together thousands
of pieces of electrical equipment on a
shelf and formed a sonar*circuit.
Part of a sonar circuit
Operators trained
to interpret the da-
ta sit at the consoles
of the most devel-
oped sonar systems.
Yet dolphins, which
evolutionists main-
tain are more primi-
tive tha* man, *ave
no need of such op-
Harun Yahya
Sonar Helps the Visually Impaired
As scientific research advances, we are discovering astonishing abil-
itie**in living things that offer solutions to problems in*many areas of dai-
ly lif*, fr*m the workplace to our hospitals. Darcy *inslow, General
Manager of Environmental Business Opportunities for Nike, expresses
this truth:
The *xtent to which the natural world can provide technological solutions for
the types of product performance characteristics we must provide are virtually
unlimited. Biomimicry still requires exploration, innovation and creativity, but
by thinking like or working with a biologist, we must learn to ask a different set
of questions and look to nature for inspiration and learning opportunities. 58
Many firms are now following a strategy that parallels the one that
Winslow set out. It is now possible to see electronic and mechanical engi-
neers working together with biologists.
Already, engineers influenced by bat's sonar have mounted a small
sonar unit onto a pair of glasses. After a period of familiarization with the
glasses, visually handicapped people are now able to avoid obstacles and
even ride bicycles. Still, the system’s designers stress that it will never re-
place human vision eye or be *s functional as that of the bat.
It’s of course impossible for flawless features like this, which even
experts have difficulties in replicating, to have appeared by chance. We
must not forget that what we refer to here as “features” are actually com-
plex, interconne*ted systems. The*absence or breakdown of only one com-
ponent means that the whole syste* fails to *ork. For example, if bats
sent out sound waves but couldn’t interpret the echoes reflected back,
they would in fact have no echolocation system at all.
In scientific liter*ture, the flawless and complete design that living
things display is known*as “irreducible complexity.” In other w*rds, cer-
tain designs become meaningless and functionless if reduced down to a
*impler *orm. Irreducible complex*ty in *l* org*nism* and*t*ei* sys*e*s
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
demolishes the funda-
mental idea of the theory
of evolution, according to
which organisms ad-
vance gradually, from the
simple towards the c*m-
plex. If a system can serve
no purpose before it
reaches its final form,
there is no logical reason
for it to maintain its exis-
tence over millions of
ye*rs, while it refin*s and
completes itself. A species
can survive down the
generations only if all its
systems are present. No
components of a system
can afford the luxury of
hoping to complete their
alleged evolution over
time. This clearly proves that when living things first appeared on Earth,
they were created with all their structures developed and fu*ly formed, as
they are today.
God brought animals an* all **her living things into being *hrough
His superior creation. News of this creation is given in a verse:
And He created livestock. There is warmth for you in them, and
various uses and some you eat. (Qur’an, 16: 5)
Harun Yahya
The Superior Design in the Bat Is Showing Us to Make Our
Roads Safer
Researchers at the University of Edinburgh developed a robot that
used its smart ears to find its way by means of ec**location, just like a bat.
Jose Carmena, *f the univ*rsity’s department of informatics, and his col-
leagues named this invention “RoBat.” The RoBat was equipped with a
central sound source, serving the same function as a bat’s mouth, and two
fixed receivers at a dista*ce apart comparable to a bat's ears.
In order*to make the best use of echo*s, other features of the bat were
al*o*borne in mi*d when designing the*Ro*at* B*ts move their ears*to d*-
tect interference patterns in the echoes and thus, can easily avoid obsta-
cles in front of them, navigate and hunt down preys. Like bats, the RoBat
was also equipped with smart acoustic sensors to make*its mechanism as
flawless as possible.
Thanks to such nature-inspired sound sensors, it is hoped that one
day our roads will be much s*fer.
In fact, such car manufacturers as Mercedes and BMW already use
ultrasonic sensors to hel* drivers reverse. Thanks to them, the driver is
alerted to how close he is to a car or other obstruction behind him. 59
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
A Fish’s Detector Against Pollution
The West African
elephant nose fish
(Gnathonemus petersii)
lives in 27 o C (80 o F)
muddy waters of
Nigeria. This 10 cm (3.9
in) fish uses its eyes
**ry l*t*le****the muddy
water. It finds*its way
*y*means of**he e*ectri-
cal **gnals con*t*ntly
given off by muscles in
its tail. Under normal
circumstances, it emits
30*-5*0 signals a minute. As the pollution levels rise, however, the num-
be* of signals emitted per minute can exceed 1,000.
D*tectors that make use of elephant nose fis* are used to measure
pollution levels in the British city of Bournemouth. A water company in
the city gave specimens of water from the River Stour to be checked by 20
elephant nose fish. Each fish lives in an aquarium filled with water from
*h***iver. *he **c*pt** si*n*ls
in the aquarium are forward-
ed to computers to which
they are linked. If the water is
polluted the increased num-
bers of signals emitted by the
fish are identified, and the
alarm signal is given by
means of the computer. 60
Harun Yahya
An electric eel
The electric eel Electrophorus electricus lives in*the
Amazon. Two-thirds of its two-meter long body is
covered in 5,000 to 6,000 electricity-producing disc-
like plates that produce 550 V / 2 A of electricity. The
shock is sufficient to stun fish up to two meters
away. (“Iste Doga,” Bilim ve Teknik, Nov. 1985, 11.)
Scientists imitate the electric eel’s defense mecha-
nism, using the same principle as it employs today.
That the eel can release such a strong discharge *f
electricity is truly a miracle of creation. It’s out of the
question for this exceedingly complex system in-
volved to have come about in stages: If the fish’s
electricity production fails to function completely, it
will give it no*advantage. In other words, every*part
of the system must have been created flawlessly and
at the same time.
An electric
stun gun
You can use electrical signals to locate an object or for
communications, but need to have accumulated scientif-
ic technology to do so. Even today, very
few countries have reached that level.
Yet some electric eels possess organic
radar around their bodies that give off elec-
trical signals that bounce back from its surroundings,
letting the animal obtain information about the size,
speed and motion of the objects around it.
The eel can also obtain information
about the gender and maturity of an-
other electric eel, and then invite it to
mate or frighten it off. (W. M. Westby,
"Les poissons électriques se parlent par décharges,"
Science et Vie, no. 798, Mar. 1984) Considering the com-
plicated*nature of our radar and
communications s*stems, we can
better understand the marvelous
creation within the eel’s body.
Harun Yahya
The glass knife fish (Eigenmannia virescens) locates objects in much the same way as hu-
mans calculate distance. We calculate distance according to the distance between sound
waves a*d the time w*ves from *he object take to rea*h our ear. This takes pla*e in a
little as 1/15,000 second. Instead of the sound waves, however, the glass knife fish emits
electrical signals and detects perturbations in the self-generated electric field due to
nearby*o*jects. As California University researchers G. Rose and W. Heilingenberg dis-
covered, the fish can perform these calculations in 400 billionths of a second, like a su-
per-computer. (“Harika Balik,” (Wonderful Fish), Hakan Durmus, Bilim ve Teknik, Mar.
1991, 43)
hich is the*most flawless, efficient flying ma-
chine? A Skorsky helicopter, a Boeing 747 pas-
senger jet, or an F-16 fighter?
The words, beginning a scientific article
about birds in Reader's Digest, provide an an-
swer to that question, stating that compared to birds, a marvel of
aerodynam**s, eve* t*e most *dva*ced aircr*ft are n*thing more
than crude copies. 61
Birds are perfect flying
machines. Any vehicle needs
to be fairly light in order to fly. This
applies right down t* the screws and
bolts used to attach the wings. This
ex*lains w*y airplane manufactur-
ers always try to use special materials
that are light but also strong and*resistant to
blows. But despite all the efforts expended toward this goal, we
humans are nowhere near birds in this field. Have you ever seen
a bird explode or fall apart in mid-air? Or a bird lose a wing be-
cause the connectio*s to its body have become weakened?
The fl*wless designs in birds have an enormous in-
fluence on the developm*nt of aviation. Indeed, the
Wright brothers, regarded as the inventors of
the airplane, used the vulture wing as a
model when building the wings of
their Kitty Hawk plane. 62
Planes fly much faster than
birds, but give off a lot of
heat during*flight. In a
bird's body, however, the
air circulation works just
like a cooling system. It is
therefore impossible to hit
a bird with a heat-seeking
missile as one can with a
In terms of flexibility and maneuverability, birds are far superior to planes. A bird’s neck allows
its beak to reach any part of the body, so that the bird is easily able to maintain its feathers,
the most important component of its flight. During flight, the neck also establishes balance, as
is the case with the flamingo. Progress made in aeronautics over the past century led to the
nose of Concorde, which was able to swivel up and down—a
design actually copied from dolphins.
The flap of a plane (the movable surface attached to the rear edge of the wing that is used to
create lift or drag) can't repair itself when damaged or even replace itself. Feathers, however,
which serve the same function for birds, can do so, thanks to the impeccable system God gave
Harun Yahya
Try to tear a feather apart, and you’ll meet con-
siderable resistance, because filaments of the
feathers are closely bound together by small
hooks known as barbicels. A split feather even has
the power to repair itself. Just rubbing a feather a
few times “with the grain” lets these tiny hooks grip
themselves together once again.
Hollow bones, powerful chest muscles to move those bones, feathers
with properties that enable them to*remain in the air, aerodynamic wings,
a metabolism that meets high energy needs… All these features, which
clearly show that birds are the product of design, also give them extraor-
dinary abilities in the air.
*irds are mo*e advanced than planes in a great many other regards.
Birds such as the raven and dove can turn somersaults in the air, and
hummingbirds can remain suspended in flight. They can change their
minds in flight and suddenly alight on a branch. No airplane can perform
such maneuvers.
*h******* m*n**v** p*r-
formed by Russian pilot Victor
Pougat*hev in his Su-27 jet has
gone *o*n in **e *istor* *f
aviation. The maneuver al-
lowed Pougatchev to halt his
plane in the air for a moment,
causing an enemy plane to
pass un*erneath. ("Yeni Avc›
U ç a k l a r › : P*o u g a t c h e v ' i n
Kobralar›," (New Hunter
Planes: Pougatchev's Cobras)
Asst. Prof. Selcuk Aslan, Bilim
ve Teknik, Mar. 1990, 57-58.)
Yet Pougatchev’s maneuver is
as nothing compared to what
the hummingbird does.
*arun Y*hya
Even before the airplane had been discovered, the flawless design
employed by birds in order to fly influenced a great many inventors. As
is recorded in early silent movies, in the 19th century some individuals ac-
tually tied homemade wings onto their arm* and hurled themselves into
space, trying to imitate the movements of birds. Predictably, it did not
take them long to realize that wings alone were not enough to permit
them to fly.
Since then, mankind has made considerable progress in terms of sci-
entific techniques, and research and development. Yet some are still mak-
ing claims at least as hollow and irrational as those early inventors. In
their view, reptiles turned into birds gradually, stage by stage. This imag-
inary mechanism of gradual evolution has no foundation to support it.
Birds possess a*totally different structure from land-dwelling creatures.
Their bone and muscle structure, feathers, aerodynamic wings and me-
tabolisms bear not the slightest similarity to those of reptiles, 63 and the al-
leged gradual evolution model cannot account for even one of their bod-
ily mechanisms.
Birds’ bodies are specially de-
signed for flight. A glance at a
bird’s neck is sufficient to illus-
trate this. A sparrow’s consists
of 14 vertebrae, the same
number as in the giraffe. This
allows the bird to easily main-
tain its balance in the air, to
hunt, and to care for its feath-
Biomimetics: Technology I*itates Nature
T*e New Objective in Aeronautic*: A Wing that Changes
Shape According to Prevailing Conditions
As they fly, birds can use their wings in the most efficient way possi-
b**,*au*o*at**al** ****g*** ** *ea* w*** *ac**** l**e*t*m*e*a***e *nd
wind. Currently, companies engaged in airplane technology are actively
seeking to develop designs that make use of these features.
NASA, *oeing and the U.S. Air Force have designed a flexible wing,
made of glass fi*ers, that can change its shape according to data from a
computer inside the plane. This computer will also be able to process da-
ta from measuring equipment regarding flight conditions such as tem-
perature, wind force, etc. 64
Airbus, another firm working in this field, is trying to build adaptive
wings that can change shape according to prevailing
conditions, in order to reduce fuel con-
sumption as much as possible. 65
In short, birds’ wing struc-
tures are literally a marvel
of design. For many
years, their match-
less ability in fly-
ing has been a
source of
Birds’ wing struc-
tures are a marvel of de-
sign. By their masterful use of
the exact same wing structure, a
bird can manage to fly in heat or cold, in
windy or still conditions. This feature attracted
scientists’ attention and led them to try to produce
a wing that could change shape according to changing
conditions. The picture shows a cross-section of a wing
designed with that purpose in mind.
***un Y*hya
inspiration for engineers. God has equipped these creatures in the *est
possible ma*ner for flight. He draws attention to them in the following
Haven't they looked at the birds above them, with wings out-
spread and folded back? Nothing holds them up but the All-
Merciful. He sees all things.
(Qur’an, 67: 19)
Owls silently glide at night to catch their prey unawares, then suddenly swoop
dow*. According to the findings of r*searchers at NASA’s Langley Research
Center in Virginia, an owl’s flight feathers—unlike most birds, the flight feath-
ers of whose have a sharp, clean edge—have soft*fringes that decrease the tur-
bulence, and thus the noise* of air as it flows over wing. Military designers
hope that stealth airplanes can be made even stealthier by imitating the owl’s
wings. It is hoped that planes now invisible to radar will be completely silent.
(R*bi* Meadows, "Designs from Life,* Zooger, July/Au*ust 1999.)
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
How Birds’ Wings Are Shaping Flight Technology
The shape of birds’ wings is the determining factor in their abil-
ity to fly. *ings of fast-flying bir*s *i*e the falcon, hawk, and
swallow are long, narrow and pointed—features that have
served as a guide to flight engineers. ("Kusursuz Ucus
Makineleri" (Perfect Flight Machines), Bilim ve Teknik, 23.)
The study of bird flight has led to impo*tant chan*es in the structure
of airplane wings.
One of the first planes to make use of these changes was
the American F-111 fighter. F-111 did not have control sur-
faces such as ailerons and flaps, which are used to con-
t*ol movements of the aircraft. In*te*d, just as bir*s
d*, the *ight*r could sweep *ts*win*** T*is*al-
lowed it to remain balanced even while
turning. 66
For high-speed flight,
the most advantageous
wing shape is one swept
back. On the other hand,
straight wings allow
greater lift, important
for takeoff and landing.
The only way of benefit-
ing from both these fea-
tures is to construct vari-
able-sweep wings, capa-
ble of moving backward
and forward. (Clive
Gifford, Her Yonuyle
Ucaklar, (Cutaway
Planes) TUBITAK, 4 th
ed., January 1999, 24.)
Fighters such as the
*ornado and F-111 have
just such wings, the
sweep of which can be
changed in fligh*. This
design, the result of long
study, has been present
in birds since the mo-
ment of their creation.
Inspired by bird bones—which are hollow, making them very
light—the wings of modern planes are designed to be hollow
The albatross has long wings with a large surface area, allowing the
bird to fly long distances without flapping its wings. Gliders de-
signed along the lines of the albatross wing are thus able
to remain in the air for long periods of time without
the need for a propeller.
During takeoff and landing, birds prefer
to face into the wind so that they expend
less energy. Airport runways are also sit-
ed to face prevailing winds, so that
planes expend less energy during take-
Biomimetics: Technology Im*t*tes Nature
In Aviation Research, the Vulture’s Feathers Show the Way
During a plane’s flight, pressure changes at the wing’s edge can
form small vortexes—air currents at the edges of the wings
that can impede flight perfor-
Aviation research
studies have revealed
that when vultures fly,
they open their quill feath-
ers—the large feathers at the edge of the wing—like the fingers of a hand.
From this observation, researchers thought of taking it as a model to make
small metal ailerons and test them in flight. Using these, they hoped it
would be possible to reduce the vortexes’ unwelcome effects on a plane
by setting up a series of smaller vortexes to re-
place the large ones that had previously been
causing problems. Experiments proved this
idea to be correct* and they are now seeking
to implement it in real aircraft.
Harun Yahya
20th-Century Science Failed to Unravel the Aerodynamic
Technique* That Insects Use to Fly
As an insect flies, it beats its wings an average of several hundred
times a second. Some insects can even flap and rotate their wings 600
times a second. 67
So many movements are carried out with such extraordinary rapidi-
ty that this design can’t possibly be re*roduced technologically. In order
to reveal the flight techniques of fruit flies, Michael Dickinson, a professor
in the department of integrative biology at the University of California,
Berkeley, and his colleagues constructed a robot, called Robofly. Robofly
imitates the insect's flapping motion, but on a 100-fold larger scale and at
only a 1,000 th of the fly’s speed. It can flap its wings once every five sec-
onds, driven by six computer-controlled motors. 68
For years, many scientists like Professor D*ckinso* have been carry-
ing out experiments hoping to discover the details of how insects flap
their wings back and forth. During his ex-
periments on fruit flies, Dickinson discov-
ered that insect wings do not merely oscil-
late up *nd down, as *f attached by a sim-
ple hinge, but actually use the most com-
plex aerodynamic techniques. Moreover,
the wings change orientation during each
flap: The wing’s top surface faces up as the
wing moves downwards, but then the
wing rotates on its axis so that the under-
side faces up as the wing rises. Scientists
trying to analyze these complex motions
say that the conventional steady-state aero-
dynamics, the approach that works for air-
Michael Dickinson
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
Scientists agree that considerable
progress has been made in aviation
technology. When it comes to micro-
**apping f*ight, however, they admit
that they are still at the same stage that
the Wright Brothers were in 1903.
Above: A micro-flight system modeled
on insect wings. Right: The Wright
Brothers’ first plane.
plane wings, is insufficient.
Fruit flies actually make use of more than one aerodynamic feature.
For example, when they flap their wings, they leave behind them a com-
plicated whirlpool of air currents, rather like the wake of a ship. As the
wing reverses direction, it passes back throu*h this churning air, recover-
ing some of the energy lost beforehand. The muscles that allow the fruit
fly's only 2.5 mm wings t* flap 200 times a*second a*e consi*ered*as*the
most powerful of all insects’ flight muscles. 69
Many other details in addition to their wings, the flies’ sharp eyes,
Harun Yahya
their small rear wings (known as halteres) aiding balance, and the sensors
organizing the timing of the flapping motion, all testify to the perfection
of their design.
Flies have been using these aerodynamic rules for millions of years.
That today’s scientists, equipped with the most advanced technology,
can’t fully account for inse*ts’ flying techniques is one of the evident
*roofs of creation. For those who are able to think, God reveals the in-
comparable nature of His wisdom and knowledge in the *iny fly. In one
verse, He reveals:
Humanity! An example has been made, so listen to it carefully.
Those whom you call *pon besides God*are not even able to create
a single fly, even if they were to join
together to do it. And if a fly
steals something from them,
they cannot get it back. How
feeble are both the seeker
and the sought! (Qur’an,
22: 73)
La**e* ***t *in******e
insects a flight advan-
tage, but also a higher
risk of the wings being
damaged. They need to
be foldable, therefore—
yet the wings’ size makes
folding difficult* Bees solve this
problem by means of a ser*es of hooks
known as the hamuli, which join the front
and hind wings together in flight. When
the bee lands, the hooks separate, and the
wings can be comfortably folded away.
very single animal possesses many astonishing
f*at*res giv*n t**it at creation. Some enjoy the
ideal hydrodynamic form to allow them to
move through water; others use *ather out-
landish sensory devices. Most of these are de-
vice* that mankind has encountered for the*first time, or has
jus* b*gun to*g*asp. Thanks to *h* s*ien*e**f bio*im**ry**prod-
ucts emerging from the imitation of these ex-
traordinary discoveries will no doubt be
employed frequently in our future.
Surface Drag and Swimsuits
Inspired by Shark Skin
In Olympic swimming competi-
tions, 1/100th of a second can make the
difference between winning and losing.
Because the resis*ive drag opposing *he mo-
tio* of swimmers’ bodies is of g*eat impor-
tance, many swimmers choose newly-de-
signed swimsuits that reduce t*e drag.
Thes* tightly fitti*g **it*, covering a rather
large area of the body, are made out of a fab-
r*c which was designed to mi*ic the p*operties
of a shark's skin by superimposin* vertical resin
Scanning electron microscope studies
have revealed that tiny "teeth" (riblets) cover
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
the surface of a sharks’ skin that produce*vertical vortices or spirals of wa-
ter, keeping the water closer to the *hark’s body and thus*reducing*drag.
This phenomenon is known as the Riblet Effect, and researc* in*o shark
skin is ongoing at NASA Langley Research Center.
Swimsuits made with new fibers and weaving techniques are pro-
duced to cling tightly to the swimmer’s body and r*duce drag as much as
possible. Research has shown that such garments can reduce drag by 8%
*****or**nar* *wimsu**s. 70
The U-shaped channels on a shark's ski* generate tin* vorte*es, bringing the water clos-
er to the***dy and*r*ducing drag. T*e l***e pic*ure *bove shows * *canning electron **-
croscope image of shark*skin. (“Fizik, Teknoloji ve Olimpiyatl*r”*(Physics, Technology
and Olympics), Bilim ve Teknik, 77.) At the Sydney Olympics, all gold-medal-winning
swimmers like the Australian Ian Thorpe, wore swimsuits with the same properties as
shark skin. This important development led to a new sphere of business activity. Firms
such as Speedo, Nike and Adidas, well known bathing suit manufacturers, hired many
experts in the fields of biomechanics and h*drodynamics.
Harun Yahya
USA Takes the Viper as a Model in Its Defense
Dr. John Pearce, of the University of Texas Electrical and Computer
Engineering Department, has studied Crotalines, better known as pit
Hi* research focused on the pit organs of these sn*kes. *n front of the
snake’s eye is a tiny nerve-rich depression, called the pit, which is used in
locating w*rm-bloo*e* prey. It contains a soph*sticated heat-sensing sys-
tem—so sensitive,*in *act, that the snake can*detect a mo*se several me-
ters away in pitch darkness. 71
The researchers stated that when they unravel the secrets of the pit
vipe**s search-and-destro* mechanism, the methods the snake employs
can**e *d*pt*d more widel**t* pr*t*ct t*e coun*r* from e*e*y missi*es.
They hope to develop systems that will help pilots flying dangerous mis-
sions avoid enemy weapo*ry. D*. Pearce says, “The Air Force wants to see
if they can mimic the biologi-
cal system and get a better
missile detector.” 72 But so
far, he explains that stud-
ies carried out to that end
have found it difficult to
match the snake’s sensi-
We’re basically modeling
the sensitivity of the
*n*ke or*an. Yo* can
measure nerve impulses,
but the question is, what
do those impulses mean?
** us* a *umerical
model to tell us: there’* this much infrared hitting the organ, and that means
this many nerve pulses. 73
The snake’s pit is a thin membrane rich in blood vessels and nerve
bundles. The membrane is so sensitive, and the variations in the respons-
es so minute and subtle that to catch and study these signals has proved
exceedingly difficult. To understand the functioning of the p*t organ, it is
necessary to work with delicate measurements and photomicrographs.
As this example shows, living things in nature display a superior in-
telligence and technology. Researchers investigating natural designs as
*h*i* m**e***th** ******e *****r*tion f****r**e*t**t*a*****h* ********e
last years and bring them to a conclusion in a much shorter time.
Harun Yahya
Chameleons and Clothes that Change Color
The impressive ability *hat chameleons have to change colors to
match their surroundings is both astoni*hing and aesth*tically pleasing.
The chameleon can camouflage itself at a speed that quite amazes people.
With great expertise, the chameleon uses its cells called chro-
matophores which contain basic yellow and red pigments, the reflective
layer reflecting blue a*d whit* light, and the melanophores containing the
black to dark brown pigment melanin, which da*kens its color. 74
For instance, place a chameleon into a bright yellow environment,
and it quickly turns yellow. In addition, the chameleon can match not on-
ly one si**le color, but a mixture**f hues. The*secret behind this lies in the
way *igme*t-*on*a*ning c*ll* ***** t**s m*ste* *f*c*mouf*ag*’s skin *x-
pand or contract to *atch their surroundings.
Current research under way at Massa*husetts Institute of
Technology, USA, is aimed at
making clothes, bags and
shoes able to change colors the
same way as the chameleon
does. Researchers envision
clothing made from the newly
developed fiber, which can re-
flect al* the light that hits it,
and equipped with a tiny bat-
tery pack. This technology will
allow the clothing to change
colors and patterns in seconds
by means of a switch on the
pack. 75 Yet this technology is
still very expensive. For in-
st*nce* t** cost of * color-
The technology in color-changing clothes and
the cham*leon’s ability *o change colo* may
appear similar, but are in fact very different.
Even if this technology can change color, still it
entirely lacks the chameleon’s camouflage abil-
ity that lets it match its surroundings in mo-
God has created the chameleon’s body with a sy*tem
that lets it change color to match its surroundings, en-
dowing it with a considerable advantage. Yet the rep-
tile*itself is *nawa*e of this ab*lity.
Haru* Yahya
**ang*ng ma*’s jacket is around $10,000.
What would you think if someone showed you a jacket and claimed,
“This can change color. Yet nobody prepared the jacket, nor its*ability to
change color. It all just happened by itself.” Probably you’d imagine that
person to be mad or else very ignorant. Quite clearly, there must have
been a tailor to put it together, and even before that, engineers to create its
ability to change color.
So, how can the chameleon carry out these impeccable changes? Did
it design the systems that permit the change, install them inside its own
body, and carry out the processes all by itself? Of course it would be most
irrat*onal to claim that the chameleon did this all of its own free will. Since
even human beings find it definitely impossible to bring about such a
change, how can a reptile install a system capable of changing its own
body’s appearance? To claim that such a superior ability came about by
chance is nonsensical and invalid.
No natural mechanism has the power to form such impeccable abil-
ities and bestow them on the living things that need*it. A superior power
rules the atoms, molecules, and cells in the creature’s body and arranges
them as*it wishes. God, Wh* crea*ed the *hameleons, *eveals to us the i*-
co*parab** natu*e*of His *reation i**such*ex*mple*. As is**ev**led in the
Qur’an, Go* is All-Powe*ful:
Everything in the heavens and the earth glorifies God. He is the
Almighty, the All-Wise. The kingdom of the hea*ens and the Earth
belongs to Him. He gives life and causes to die. He has power over
all things. (Qur’an, 57: 1-2)
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
515-Million-Year-Old Optic Design
In an article published in American Scientist, the well-known US sci-
entific magazine, Andrew R. Parker states that he and his colleagues ex-
amined a mummified fly preserved in amber resin for 45 million yea*s.
There was a periodic grating structure on the curved surfaces of the fly
o*m*ti*ia ***d***du*l visu*l**rg*ns compo*ing*t*e fl*'s comp*u***e**).
Analyzing the reflective properties of this structure, they realized that the
fly-eye structure was a very efficient antireflector, particularly at high an-
gle* o* incidence. This hypothesis was indeed confirmed in later studies.
Thanks to these findings and others, today’s scientists have deter-
mined how to greatly increase the efficiency of solar absorbers and solar
panels used to provide energy for satellites. Work is currently under way
Harun Yahya
to reduce the angular reflection of
infrared (heat) and other light waves
by mimicking the fly-eye structure.
Most suitable for use in solar panel
surfaces, the fly-eye grating has also
done away with the necessity for ex-
pensive equipment to ensure that
th**e panels a*e always directly fac-
ing the Sun* 76
Only recently have space tech-
nologists discovered and imitated
this design, but flies have possessed
it for millions of years. Similar struc-
tures have recently been discovered
also on some Burgess Shale fossils,
515 million years old. Permitting
very acute and color vision, this de-
sign shows just what a superior
product of creation it really is. But
*uch evidence can be com*rehend-
ed only by believers—those who
can use their reason to comprehend
that everything t*at*e*ists is under Go*’s control.
One verse describes how similar proofs mean nothing to those who
deny God:
God is not ashamed to use the example of a mosquito or of an even
smaller thing. As for those who believe, they know it is the truth
from their Lord. But as for those who do not believe, they say,
“What does God mean by this example?” He misguides many by it
and guides many by it. But He only misguides the deviators.
(Qur’an, 2: 26)
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
Stenocara: A Fully-Fledged Water Capturing Unit
In the desert, where few living things are to be found, some species
possess the most astonishing designs. One of these is the tenebrinoid bee-
tle S*enocara, which lives in the Namib Desert, in Southern Africa. A report
in the November 1, 2001, edition of Nature descr*bes how this beetle col-
lects the *ater so vital to its survival.
Stenocara’s water capture system basically depends on a special fea-
ture of its back, whose surface is covered with tiny bumps. The surface of
the re**o*s betwee* these bu*ps is ***-*oated, though**** peaks of the
bumps are wax-free. This allows the beetle to collect in a more productive
Stenocara extracts from the air the water vapor that occurs only rarely
in its desert environment. What is rem*rkable is how it*separates out the
water fro* the desert air, where tiny water droplets evaporate very quick-
ly due to heat and wind. Such droplets, weighing almost nothing, are
borne along parallel to the ground by the wind. The beetle, behaving as if
it knew this, tilts its body for-
wards into the wind. Thanks to
its unique design, droplets
form on the wings and roll
down the beetle's surface to its
mouthparts. 77
The article about Stenocara
included the following com-
ment: “The mechanism by which
water is extracted from the air and
formed into large droplets has so
far not been explained, despite its
biomimetic potential.” 78
Harun Yahya
*xaminin* t*e**eat*res of th** beetle’* ba*k**nder an elect****mi*r*-
scope, scientists established that it’s a perfect model for water-trapping
tent and building coverings, or water condensers and engines. Designs of
such a complex nat*re cannot come about just by themselves or through
natural events. Also, it’s impossible for a tiny beetle to have “inv*nted”
any system of such extraordinary design. Just Stenocara alone is sufficient
to prove that our Creator designed everything that exists.
100% Efficient Light-Generating Fireflies
From the tip of their abdomens, fireflies produce greeny-yellow
light. This light is*produced in cells containing a chemical called luciferin,
wh*ch rea*ts with oxy*en and an enzyme known as luciferase. The beetle
can turn the light on and off
by varying the amount of air
entering its cells from its
breat*in* tubes.*A normal
household bulb has a produc-
tivity level of 10%, the other
90% of the energy being wast-
ed as heat. But in a firefly, al-
most 100% of the energy pro-
duced is light, representing
with this very efficient
process, a target for scientists
to aim for. 79
What force allows fire-
flies to engage in such a high
level of efficiency? According
to *volutionist*,*the*answer
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
lies in unconscious atoms, hap-
penstance, or other external fac-
tors with no propulsive force; none
of which can possess the power to
actually initiate such productive activi-
ty. God’* art is infinite and incompara-
ble. In many verses of the Qur’an, God
speaks of the need for people to use rea-
son to*consider and draw lessons from
what He has created. Therefore, man’s re-
sponsibility is to consider God's miracles
and turn only towards Him.
A Solution to Traffic Problems from Locusts!
Auto accidents cost millions of lives every year. In its search for a so-
lution, the scientific world no* believes that locusts might offer just such
a remedy. Even though locusts travel in swarms of millions, research has
shown that they never collide with one another. The answer to how lo-
c***s*a**** ****g*s* l*d to***e o**ni*g ******h******* *******f***h*r**o*.
Experiments determined that locusts send out an electronic signal to
any body approaching them to identify that body’s location, and then
change direction a***rd*n*l*.*80
Inve*to*s*are now trying to im-
plement the method locusts em-
pl*y*in **der to r*s*lve a *r*b-
lem that has remained in-
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
tractable for years. These creatures, behaving in the way God inspires
th*m to, are among the clearest proofs of creation.
Birds’ Flight Methods as a Model for High-Speed Trains
When Japanese engineers and scientists were designing their high-
speed 500-Series electric trains, they encountered a major problem:
Examining wild birds for the perfect solution, soon they found the design
they were seeking and implemented it successfully.
Ow* Flight and High-Sp*e* *ra*n *oise
In the high-speed trains developed by the Japanese, safety is one of
the most important factors* A second is compatibility with Japanese envi-
ronmental standards. Japan’s noise regulations regarding railway opera-
tors are the strictest in the world. Using current technology, it’s not actu-
ally that difficult to go faster, though it’s hard to eliminate noise while do-
ing so. Under Japanese Environment Agency regulations, a railway’s
Harun Yahya
noise levels must no* ex-
ce*d 75 decibels *t a point
25 meters (82 feet) away
from the center of railway
track in urban areas. At a
crossing in a town, when
cars st*rt to move all at
once on the green light,
they create more than 80
decibels. This goes to
show just how quiet the
high-speed Shinkansen
train must be.
The reason for the
noise that a train produces
up to a certain operation
speed is the rolling of its
wheels on the tracks. At
speeds of 200 kmph (125
mph) or over, however,
the sound source becomes
the aerodynamic noise caused by its movement through the air.
The major*s**rces of aerodynamic nois* are *he pantog*aphs, or *ur-
rent colle*tors, used to take in electricity from o*erhea* catenary.
Engineers, realizing that they couldn’t reduce noise levels with the con-
ventional recta*gular pantograp*s, concentrated their research on *ni-
mals that move quickly, yet silently.
Of all birds, owls make the least noise during flight. One of the ways
they manage this is through the plumes of their wings. In addition, an
owl’s wings have many small saw-toothed feathers (serrations) visible
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
even to the naked eye, which other birds lack. These serrations generate
smal* vortexes in*the ai***low. Aerodynamic noise ste*s ***m*vort*xes
forming in the air flow. As these grow in size, the noise increases. Since
owls’ wings feature*many saw-t*ot*ed pro*ections, they form smaller vor-
texes instead of large ones, and the owls can fly very quietly.
When Japanese designers a*d engineers tested stuffed owls in a
wind tunnel, they once again witnessed the perfection of these birds’
wing design. *ater, they succeeded in efficiently reducing train noise by
using wing-shaped pantographs based on the principle of the owl’s ser-
rations. Thus the pantograph system developed by the Japanese, inspired
by nature, beca*e the*quietest functio*in*. 81
The Kingfisher’s Dive and High-Speed Trains’ Entry into Tunnels
The *unne*s**n**h* line* us*d ** hi*h-speed*trai*s represen*ed an-
other problem fo* engineers to solve. When a train enters a tunnel at a
high speed, atmospheric pressure waves rise up and gradually grow up
to*be lik* tida**waves tha* approach th* exit o* t*e tunne* at *h* s*me**on-
ic speed. At the exit, the waves then return. At
the tunnel’s exit, part of the pressure waves
is released with a sometimes explosive
Harun Yahya
Since the pressure of the waves is about one thousandth of atmos-
*h*ri****e*sure*** l**s, t**y*************t***s t*******i****pre*su*e*****s,
which form as shown in the di*gram.
The very disturbing noise created under the influence of the p*essure
waves can be reduced by widening the tunnel, but the task of altering the
cross-sectional area of tunnels is very difficult and*expensive.
At first, en*ineers thought that *educi*g*the *ross-sectio*al area of
trains and making the forefront shape sharp and smooth migh**be
a solution. They put these ideas into action in an experi-
mental train, but remained unable to eliminate
the m*cro-pressur* waves it cre*ted.
Wondering if similar dy-
namics arose in nature, the de-
signers a*d engineers thought of
the kingfisher. In order to hunt its
prey, the kingfisher dives int* water,
which has greater fluid resistance
than air, a*d it experiences sudden
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
To catch its prey, the king-
fisher dives from low-resis-
tance air into high-resis-
tance water. Just as the
bird’s beak facilitates such a
dive, it also prevents its
body from harm. But the
kingfisher still needs to be
able to see its prey as it
dives into the water. God
has created the bird with a
protective mechanism to
protect its eyes without hin-
deri*g its ability to see and
sei*e its prey und*rwater.
When one bears in mind the
fact that underwater objects
appear to be somewhere
else than where they really
**e ***n*on*****k* *t****m
from above the water, the
impor*ance of *h** *ec*mes
even clearer.
changes in the resistance like a train does when it enters a tunnel.
Accordingly, a train traveling at 300 kmph (186 mph) needs to have
a forefront shape like a kingfisher’s beak, which facilitates the bird’s div-
Studies conducted by the Japanese Railway Technical Research
Institute and the University of Kyushu revealed that the ideal shape to
suppress tunnel micro-pressure waves*was a shape of revolving parabo-
loid or a wedge. * close-up cross-section of a kingfisher’s upper and low-
er b*a* form p*ecisely thi* shap*. 82 The king**sher*is yet *noth*r *xample
of how *ll living things are *reated with exactly what they need to sur-
vive—and whose designs can serve as models for human beings.
Harun Yahya
Peacock Feathers and Self-Changing Display Signs
In a peacock's feathers, the ker-
atin protein together with the
b**** f*athe********* m**a**n,**he
only pigment these feathers con-
tain, allow light to refract so that we
can see the color. The light and dark
colors we see in feathers derive
from the directional layering of ker-
atin. Peacock feathers' exceedingly
bright hues stem from this structural feature.
Nature inspired one Japanese company to develop reusable displ*y
signs, whose surfaces are structurally altered under ultraviolet light
which changes the materials’s crystalline alignment, thus eliminating cer-
tain colors so as to display the desired message. These signs can be used
over and ove* and imprinted with new images. This eliminates the cost of
producing new signs, as well as the ne*d for using toxic paints. 83
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
A Computer Solution from Butterflies
We use computers so extensively that they’ve become part of every
moment of our lives 24 hours a day—at home, at work, even in our cars.
Comp*t** techno*og* is d*veloping rapidly*day *y day, and incre*sing
living standards require of computers’ functioning to increase at the same
pace, growing faster all the time. The latest models can achieve breath-
taking speeds, and faster chips mean that computers can carry out more
tasks in less time. However, faster chips lead to greater consumption of
electricity, which warms up the chips as a result. It is essential for com-
puter chips to be cooled do*n to prevent them from melting. The existing
fans are no longer sufficient to cool down the latest generation of chips.
Designers seeking a solution to this problem eventually declared that they
had found a s*lution in nature.
Butterfly wings contain a perfect structure in their design. Research
carri*d out at T*fts University has revealed that there is a cooling system
in butterfly wings. When this system is compared to that in computer
Harun Yahya
chips, it has a much better performance. A team headed by assistant re-
search professor of mechanical engineering Peter Wong was funded by
the American*National Science Foundation to study how iridescent but-
terflies control heat.
Sin*e butterflies ar* co*d-bloo*ed,*they ha*e t* co*stantly reg*l*te
their body temperatures. This is a serious problem, because friction dur-
ing flight leads to considerable quantities of heat. This heat needs to be
cooled down at once. Otherwise, the butterfly will not survive. The solu-
tion is provided by the millions of microscopic scales, called thin-film
structures, clinging to their wings. The heat g*nerated is thus dispersed. 84
T*e team est***tes*that thi* *ese*r*h will become u*eful f*r*chip
manufacturers like Intel and Motorola in the near future. But in butt*r-
*l**s* th*s m*tc**es***es**n*has b*** ****nd f*r ***lon* a* t*** *a*** That
butterfly wing* embody such a flawless solution introduces us to the wis-
dom and power of the Creator. That power belongs to God, Who has do-
minion and power over all.
J*** 12, 2*01*news r*le*se ***l*sh*d*by
America’s Sandia National Laboratories
announced that as a result of their work,
they h*d “approached the visual acuity of
the eye itself.” The report stated that using
64 computers, a digital image was produced that took them on-
ly seconds to acquire. 85
This is a most important development, yet one point
shouldn’t be forgotten. In as little as one-tenth of a second, hu-
man eyes form an image that takes up no more space than one
square milli*eter on the retina. With this in mind, it can be seen
that the human eye is much faster and more functional than 64
computers, using the very latest technology.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
Technology Is Unable to Match the Design in the Human
Human beings live for an av*r*ge of between 70 an* 80 years. The
human heart beats some 70 to 80 times a minute, for a total of several bil-
lion times during the course of an individual’s lifetime. The Abiomed
company, known for its research into artificial hearts, has stated that de-
spite all its work, it will be unable to imitate the flawless functioning that
the heart displays successfully over the years* For the company’s newly-
*evelope* artificial heart to beat 175 million beats, or abou* five years, ap-
pears a significant target. 86
A product of the latest technology, this artificial heart was te*ted in
calves before human beings, although the calves survived for only a few
months. The artifi*ial heart*developed by the co**any has been *ut in
safety trials in human heart failure patients in 2004* But, obviously re-
searchers find the human heart so difficult to imitate. Steven Vogel of
Duke Universi*y* a biomechanic who*has also written a book on this sub-
Alan Snyder
Harun Yahya
ject, describes why:
It’s that the engines we have available, whatever their pow-
er output or efficiency work so differently.*Muscle is a soft,
wet,*contractile **gine* and that’s j*st unlik* anything *n
our technological armamentarium. So you can’t im-
itate a heart 87
Like the genuine article, Abiomed’s ar-
tificial heart consists of two ventricles.
Th*re th* similarity*end*, ho*ev*r. Alan
Snyder of Penn State, a bioengineer who
led the research, explains the difference in
these terms: “In the natural heart, you’re us-
ing muscle as a container and the container pumps on its own.” 88 Pumps
that work along the same lines as the heart contain a container and a sys-
tem that pumps the fluid. In the heart, however, the container carries out
its own pumping. That is the difference Snyder summarized.
Researchers, wondering how to make a heart that contracts by itself,
set the interior walls of the two ventricles into motion by placing a sepa-
rate engine between them. This artif*cial heart wor*s with a battery locat-
ed in the patient’s abdomen. This battery has to be recharged continuous-
ly by radio waves emitted by a re*hargable battery pack patients will
wear in a harness.
Our natural hearts, on the other hand, have no need of a battery for
energy, because they boast an incomparable muscular design capable of
creating its own energy in every cell. Another feature of the heart that
can’t be replicated is the incomparable efficiency of its pulses. In fact, the
heart can pump five liters of blood a minute while at *est, which can rise
to 25-30 liters during exercise. Kung, Abiomed’s director, describes this
extraordinary change of tempo as “a challenge that currently no mechan-
ical device can meet.” The artificial heart made by the company can only
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
pump 10 liters a minute at best, which is not sufficient for a great many
ordinary activities. 89
The real heart is nourished and strengthened according to its needs
by th* blood it pumps. *uch a heart can work for 50 to 60 years wi*h no
need for repairs. The heart possesses the capacity for self-renewal, which
is wh* it n*ve* lose* its*ability for *nin*erru*t*d work**T*i**** y** ano*h-
er feature that makes it impossible to imitate artificially.
Our heart, which scientists can only dream of matching with present-
day technology, shows to us th* superior knowledge of our Creat*r and
our Great Lord—God.
From the Immune System, a So*ution to the Computer Virus
Once a single computer is affected by a virus, this means that other
computers in th* world may soon be contaminated as well. Many com-
pa*ies, therefore* have seen it necessary to set up*an “immune sys*em” to
protect their network systems from viruses and continue to carry out in-
*ensive rese*r*h in****s a*ea. One of*t*e*c*n*ers t*a* *s carry*n* o*t*this
work is the virus isolation laboratory at the IBM's Watson Research Center
in N*w York**The**, a hi*h-security *i*robiolo*y la*o*a*or* wor*s**ith
lethal viruses, also producing programs that can diagnose the 12,000 or so
viruses identified so far—and also isolate the viruses from a computer in
a safe manner and then kill them.
IBM is only one of the firms trying to construct a worldwide immune
system to protect its existing computer systems from virus threats in the
cyberspace. Steve White, one of the company’s executives, states that to
achieve that en*,*an immune system like the human body’s is needed.
It's only the existence of an immune system that allows the human race to ex-
ist. Only an immune system in cyberspace *ill allow it to exist. 90
Harun Yahya
Pursuing this analogy between the computer and living things, re-
searc*ers have begun producing protective programs that function like
our own immune systems. They believe what we have learnt from epi-
demiology (the branch of science which studies contagious diseases* and
immunology (which deals with the immune system) will be able to pro-
tect electronic progr*ms from new threats in the same way that antibod-
ies protect living organisms.
Computer viruses are clever self-replicating programs designed to
infiltrate computers, multiply b* copyin* themsel*es and damage*or “hi-
jack” the computers they enter. Indications that such viruses are present
include a slowing down of the computer system, occasional mysterious
damage to files, and sometimes, complete failure or “crashing” of the
computer itself—much as with the various diseases that affect human be-
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
To protect our computers against the menace of viruses, identifica-
tion programs*search every code in the computer’s memory to find traces
of viruses that have previously been identified and stored in the pro-
grams’ memory. Computer viruses carry traces of the signature of the
software wri*er that let them be recognized. When the computer’s search
program recognizes that telltale signature, it warns that the computer has
been infected with a virus.
Even so, anti-virus programs can’t of*er complete protection for com-
puters. Some programmers can write new viruses within a matter of a few
**ys and again insert them*into cyberspace*through ju*t*one*infected
computer. That being the case, it’s vital that anti-virus programs be con-
stantly updated so that they have the information they need to recognize
new viruses. New anti-virus programs need to be added constantly, there-
fore, to protect against the virus threat.
With the increasing spread of worldwide use of the Internet, these
viruses have begun to spread very much faster and to inflict serious harm
to infected computers. IBM **searchers have found solutions by imitating
natural examples. First of all, just like biological viruses in nature, artifi-
cial computer viruses use the host programming to multiply. Starting
from that analogy, researchers investigated how the human immune sys-
tem works to protect the body.
When it encounters a foreign organism, the body immediately begins
to build antibodies that will recognize the invader and destroy it. The im-
mune system doesn’t need to analyze the who*e*of a cell that might result
in a si*knes*.*Once any prelim*na*y i*f*ction*has been suppressed, the
body keeps a number of the appropriate antibodies in readiness, to re-
spond immediately to any future recurrence. Thanks to these standby an-
tibodies, there is no need to examine the entire infecte* cell. Similarly, ex-
isting anti-virus programs also c*ntain an "antibody" that recognizes not
the w*o*e compu*er virus, but rather its si*nature.
Harun Yahya
As we have seen, the solutions to many problems in the technical
arena that leave us floundering already exist in nature. Our immune sys-
tem, of which every detail has been thought out and which functions per-
fectly, was ready to protect us before we were even bo*n. It is Our Lord
*ho w*tches and*prote*ts all. In **e ver*e *t i* re*ealed:
My Lord is the Preserver of everything. (Qur’an, 11: 57)
From the Eye to the Camera: the Technology of Sight
The eyes of vertebrates resemble spheres with openings called pupils
through which light enters. Behind the pupils are lenses. Light passes first
through these lenses, then through the fluid that fills the eyeball, finally
striking the retina. In the retina there are some 100 million cells known as
rods and cones. The rod cells distinguish between light and dark, and the
cones detect colors. All these cells turn the light falling onto them into
electrical signals and send them to the brain via the optic nerve.
The eye regu*ates the i*tensity*of the light en*ering it by means of*the
iris, s*rrounding the pupil. *he iris is able to expand and *ontract, thanks
to its tiny muscles. Similarly, the amount of light entering a camera is re-
stricted by a device known
as a diaphragm. In his book
Wild Technology, Phil Gates
describes how the camera
is a very simple copy of the
Cameras are primitive,
mechanical versions of
vertebrate eyes. They are
light-proof boxes equipped
with a lens to focus an im-
a*e on film that is briefly exposed when a shutter is opened. In eyes the image
is focused by changing the shape of the lens, but cameras are focused by chang-
ing the distance of the lens from the film. 91
This is the first step in taking a photograph. The**ame kind of focus-
ing of an image is also necessary in order for it to fall clearly onto the sen-
sitive retina *n th* eye. With cameras,*this is done by han* or*automati-
cally in more sophisticated models. Microscopes and telescopes, used to
s*e *p close *nd far a*ay,*ca* a*so be fo*used, ye* *h*s p*ocess a*ways in-
volves a certain loss of time.
The human eye, on the other hand, performs this process constantly
by itself, and*very quickly. Furthermore, the method it employs is so su-
perior that it cannot possibly be imitated. Thanks to the muscles around
it, the lens sends the image onto the retina. Very flexible, this lens easily
changes shape, sharpening the point on which light falls by expanding or
If the lens didn’t do this automatically—for inst*n*e, if we had to
consciously focus on the object of our attention—then we’d have to make
a constant effort to be able*to se*. Images in our sight would blur in and
out of focus. We would require time to see anything properly and as a re-
sult, all *f our actio*s would be slowed down.
Because God has made o*r eyes flawless, however, we experience
none of these difficulties. When he wants to see anything, no one has to
wrestle with setting his eyes’ focus and make various optical calculations.
In order to*see an object clearly, it is sufficient to*look at it. The rest of the
process is handled automatically by the eye and the brain—moreover, it
all takes place in the space of time it takes to wish to do it.
Light Settings
A photograph taken *n the daytime will be very clear, but not when
the same film is used to take a picture of the night sky. Yet even though
our eyes open and cl*se in less than one-tenth of a second, we *an see the
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
stars quite clearly, because our eyes automatically set themselves accord-
ing to various in*ensities of light. Muscles around the pupil a*low this to
happen. If our surroundings are dark, these muscles expand, the pupil
widens and more light is all*wed into the eye. With plenty of light, the
muscles contract, the pupil shrinks and less light is permitted to enter.
That is why we enjoy c*ear vi*ion bo*h night and day.
A Window on a Colored World
The eye “snaps” both a black-and-white picture an* a colored one*at
the same time. Thes* two pict*res are*later combin*d in t*e br*in, *here
they take on a normal appearance, in much the same way as four-color
photography comb*nes black with red, yellow, and blue to produce a re-
alistic full-color image.
The rod cells in the retina perceive objects in black and white, but in
a detailed manner. The cone cells identify the colors. As a result, the sig-
nals receive* are analyz*d, and our brains fo*m a col*red image of the
outside world.
Harun Yahya
The Eye’s Superior Technology
Compared with the eye, cameras possess a very primitive structure.
Visual images are many times more precise than those obtainable with
even the most highly developed camera. As a result, images perceived by
the eye are of much higher quality than those provided by any man-made
This whole idea can be better grasped i* *e examine *he principles of
a TV camera, which operates by transmitting numerous dots of light.
During br*a*cas*, a scanning proc**u*e is *ppl*ed, *n* the obje*t be*o*e
the camera is thus divided into a specific number of lines. A photocell
lamp scans all the dots in each line consecutively, from left to right.
Having finished scanning one line, it moves on to the next, and the
process continues. T*e light values of each dot are analyzed, and the re-
sulting signal is emitted. This photocell scans 625 or 819 lines in one-twen-
ty fifth of a second. When one entire image is complete, a new one is
transmitted. In this way the quantity of signals emitted is very high, all
created at a dazzling speed.
The eye’s mechanism is much
more functional. One can
clearly understand the as-
tonishing perfection of
its structure when
one considers that it
never needs to re-
pair or replace any
B*o**me*ics: *echn**ogy *mi*ate**Natu*e
As medical science ad-
vances, the human eye’s
miraculous nature is being
ever better understood. By ap-
plyin* to technology the
knowledge we’re acquiring
about the eye, ever more ad-
vanced cameras and countless
optical systems are being de-
veloped. But no matter how
much technology advances,
the electronic devices man-
ufactured so far remain a
primitive copy of the eye
itself. No computer-sup-
ported camera or other
man-made gadget can rival the human eye. 92
So how did t*i* c**p*ex struct*re *n the *ye e***ge?
It is undoubtedly impossible for any structure this complex to form
itself by trial and error, over a long period of time. The eye’s structure is
such that it won’t be*able to work if even one component is lacking. No
design c** come ab*ut by c**nce, and the eye reveals a very clear and in-
comparable design. This leads us to the question of Who designed it. The
only Originator of the design is God. The fact that such an organ has been
given to us, allowing us to perceive everything round us in the best pos-
sible way, is a great reason for*us to thank Him. As we are told in one
verse of the Qur’an,
Say: “It is He Who brought you into being and*gave you hear*ng,
sight and hearts. What little thanks you show!” (Qur’an, 67: 23)
Harun Yahya
Scientists’ Attem*t to Imitate the Eye
Amazed at the eye’s functioning, and
seeking to duplicate its superior fea-
tures in the technological field,*scien-
tists have recently begun to examine
more closely the flawless mecha-
nisms of living things in nature. A
number of studies in biomimetics
have greatly accelerated progress in
the technological arena.
Computer Circuitry Imitates Nature
Inner retina
Outer retina
Optic nerve
The retinal cells in our eyes recognize and in-
terpret light, then send this inf*rmation to other cells to which they are
connected. All these visual processes have inspired a new model for com-
The retina, consisting o* nerve cells tightly linked to one another, is
not restricted to only perceiving light. Before signals from the retina are
transmitted to the brain, they undergo a huge number of processes. For
instance, cells that compose the retina process*informati*n to ac*entuate
the edges of objects, called*"edge extraction," boost the powe* of the elec-
trical signal and carry out adjustments, depending on whether the ambi-
ent illumination is dark or bright. Yes, powerful modern computers are
capable of c*rrying out similar functions, but the retina’s neural network
uses a relatively much smaller amount of energy. 93
One research team, led by Carver Mead of the California Institute of
Technology, is looking into the secrets that allow the retina to carry out all
*he*e*pro*e********ea******T****her***th*t** **lte*h*****o***t**i**a
Mahowald, M*ad designed electroni**c*rcu*ts containing light*re*eptors
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
like those in the eye, with a structure similar to
the retina’s neural network. Also as in the reti-
na, these l*ght receptors are connected to oth-
ers, allowing the electronic circuit components
to communicate with o*e another, just as reti-
nal cells do. 94
Despite all these efforts, however, it’s
Carver Mead
proved to be impossible to imitate the retinal netwo*k’s circuitry, because
of the vast *umber of individua* cel*s in the living retina and*the connec-
tion* **t*e*n t*e*******gn**n*****rs*****r****** ar******t*y****to***-
derstand how the retina’s neural network operates and are designing sim-
pler circuits which, ideally, can perform similar functions.
Harun Yahya
The Fly’s Ear Will*Cause a Revolution i* Hearing D*vices
Researc*ers from Cornell University in Ithaca, N.Y., began studying
hearing systems in nature in order to design more sensitive auditory
equipment. As a result, they realized that the ear of Ormia ochracea, and its
extraordinary design could lead to a revolution in hearing aids. The ear of
this species of fly can identify a sound’s direction in a most accurate man-
ner. As an arti*le of U.S. National Institute on Deafness and Other
Communication Disorders describes it:
Humans were co*sidered the best creatures at locating sounds Because hu-
mans have six or so inches between their right and left ears, the difference be-
tween what each ear hears is greater, making it easier to compute the location of
the sound. But with its right ear only half a millimeter away from its left, Ormia
has a much bigger challenge in telling the difference. 95
Identifying the direction of sounds is essential for Ormia’s survival,
because it must locate crickets as a source of food for its larvae. The fly de-
posits its eggs atop the cricket, and its larvae feed on the insect after they
Ormia has very sens*tive ears design*d to establ*sh*th* locat*on of a
chirping cricket. It can pinpoint sounds exceptionally well.
For locating sounds, the human brain uses a similar method to that
of Ormia. For this purpose, it’s enough f*r s*und to reach the closer ear
first, then*the more distant *ne. When a sound
wave strikes the eardrum’s membrane, it is con-
verted into an electrical signal and immediately
transmitted to the brain. The brain calculates the
milliseconds of difference between the sound’s
reaching both ears and thus determines the direc-
tion it came from. The fly, whose brain is no larg-
er than a pinhead, performs this calcul*tion only
Ron Hoy
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
in 50 nanoseconds, 1,000 times faster than we
can. 96
Scientists are trying to use the exception-
ally functional design of this small fly’s ear in
the manufacturing of hearing and listening
devices under the brand name of ORMIA-
FON. As we have shown, even the tiny fly
possesses a superior structure and design that
demolishes evolution’s nonsensical theory of
"coincidence." In the same way, this minute
creature’s every organ and feature display the
infinite might and *nowledge of our Creator.
It is impossible for such a tiny yet complex creature to be recreated even
by skillful scientists working together and employing the most advanced
technology, let alone *hrough an imaginary "evolutionary" process.
Even this tiny fly constitutes a self-evident proof of God’s superior
ince the designs in nature are quite flawless,
their i*spirations are now **equently em-
ployed in architectural designs. All the fea-
tures necessary in a structure, such as energy
savings, beauty, functionality and durability
have already been created in the natural world. No matter how
many superior systems human beings may run across, their imita-
tions can never be as good or practical as the originals.
In order to copy nature’s design**an* imple*ent them in ar-
chitectural design, a high level of engineering know-how is essen-
tial. Yet the living things in the natural world know nothing about
load bearing or architectural principles. Nor do they have any op-
portunity of understanding them. All living things behave in the
manner God inspires in them. In one verse, He reveals that all liv-
ing things are under His control:
… There is no creature He does not hold by the forelock
(Qur’an, 11: 56)
Buckminster Fuller, an architect famous
for using forms in nature in the structures
he designed, said that the designs in na-
ture make marvelous models. According
to Fuller, what makes nature’s dynamic,
functional and light weight technology es-
sential is “optimum efficiency.” (“Invisible
Architecture,” Bonnie Goldstein DeVarco,
ture. htm) The picture shows Fuller with a
design inspired by the microscopic crea-
tures known a* radiolarians.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
Oyster Shells—a Model for Light,
Sturdy Roofs
The shells of mussels and oysters re-
semble wavy hair because of thei* irregu-
larly shapes. This shape allows the shells,
despite being very lightweight, to with-
stand enormous pressure. Architects have
employed their structure as a model for de-
signing various roofs and ceilings. For ex-
ample, the roof of Canada’s Royan Market
was designed with the oyster shell in
mind. 97
Architect Eugene Tsui is known for
using the designs in nature in his
structu*es. Ts*i*does not em*loy
the right angles and straight lines
we are accustomed to, but instead
prefers the soft lines found in na-
ture. Structures planned along
these lines, he says, are better able
to withstand the destructive ef-
fects of earthquakes, wind and
wa*er. (National Georaphic
Channel (Turkey), Animal
Inventors, 25/11/2001)
An oyster shell and
the Royan Market
The oyster shell’s curved shape
makes it especially resistant.
Corrugated cardboard dupli-
cates the curved lines found in
Harun Yahya
The Munich Olympic Stadium and Dragonfly Wings
Dragonfly wings are one three-thousandth*of a millimeter thick.
Despite being so thin, however, they are very strong since they con-
sist of up to 1,000 sections. Thanks to this compartmental structure
the wings do not tear, and are able to withstand the pressure that
forms during flight. The roof of the Munich Olym*ic Stadium was de-
signed along the same principle.
The Munich Olympic Stad*um
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
From the Water Lily *o the Crystal Palace
Built for the first World’s Fair in London in 1851, the Crystal Palace
was a technological m*rv*l of *lass and iron. *ome 35 meters (108*feet)
high and*covering an area of approximately 7,500 square meters (18
acres), it featured more than 200,000 panes of glass, each 30 by 12* cen-
timeters (12-by-49 inches) in size.
The Crystal Palace was designed by lan*sc*pe designer Joseph
Paxton, who drew inspiration from Victoria amazonica, a species of water
lily. Despite its very fragile appearance, this lily possesses huge leaves
that are strong enough for people to stand on.
When Paxton examined these leaves’ undersides, he found they
were supported by fibrous extensions like ribs. Each leaf has radial ribs
stiffened by slender crossribs. Paxton thought these ribs could be dupli-
cated a* weight-bearing iron struts, and the leaves themselves as the glass
panes. In this way, he succeeded in constructing a roof made of glass and
iron, which was very light yet still very strong. 98
The water lily begins growing in the mud at the bottom of
Amazonian lakes, but in order to survive, it needs to reach the surface.
The structure of the wa-
ter lily was used when
building the Pan Am
Terminal at New Y*rk’s
John F. Kennedy Airport.
signed along the lines of a
water lily leaf distributes
the load.
The Crystal Palace in London
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
When it comes to the surface of
the water it stops growing, then
starts forming thorn-tipped
buds. In as little as a few hours,
these buds open into enormous
leaves up to two meters across.
The more area they cover on the
surface of the river, the more
sunlight they can obtain with
which to carry out photosynthe-
Another thing the root of
t*e water *ily re*uires**s**x**en,
of which t*ere*is little in the
muddy bottom where the plant is rooted. However, tubes running down
the long stems of the leaves, which can reach as much as 11 meters (35
feet) in height, serve as channels that carry oxygen from *he leaves down
to the roots. 99
As the seed starts to grow in the depths of the lake, how does it know
that it will soon need light and oxygen, without which it can’t survive,
and that everything it requires is at the surface *f the water? A plant that
*as only just begun to *e*minate is unawar* t*at the water **o*n* h*s a
surface up above, and knows nothing of the Sun or oxygen.
According to evolutionist logic, therefore, new water lilies should
have drowned under several feet of water and become extinct long ago.
*et the fact is that these water lilies are still around today, in all the*r per-
Amazon lilies, after reaching the light and oxygen they need, curl
their leav*s upwards at the edges so that they do not fill with water and
sink. These precautions may help them survive, but if the species is to
Harun Yahya
continue, they need some insects to carry their pollen to other lilies. In the
Amazon, beetles have a special attraction to the color white and therefore,
select this lily’s flowers to land on.*With th* arrival of this six-legged
guests, who will allow the Amazon lilies to survive down the generations,
the petals close up, prevent*ng the insec*s from escaping, w*ile offering
them*large quantities of pollen. After holding them imprisoned for the
whole night and throughout t*e next day, the flower then releases them,
also changing color so that the beetles do not bring its own pollen back to
it. The lily, formerly a shining white, now adorns the river in a dark pink.
No doubt that all these flawless, perfectly calculated, and consecu-
tive steps are not the work of the lily itself, which has no foreknowledge
or pla*ning abilities, but flow from the infinite wisdom of God, its
Creator* All the details summarized briefly here*demonstrate that, like all
things in the universe, God created them with all the necessary systems to
ensure their survival.
Left: Cross section of the water lily.
Below: The water lily's leaf and flower on the wa-
ter’s surface.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
A Structure that Makes Bones More Resistant
Even today, the Eiffel Tower is accepted as a marvel of engineering,
but the event that led to its design took place back to 40 years before its
construction. This was a study in Zurich aimed at revealing "the anatom-
ical st*ucture of*the t*igh*bone."
In the early 1850s, the a*atomist Hermann von Meyer was studying
the part of the thigh bone that inserts into the hip joint. The thigh bone
head extends sideways into the hip socket, and bears the body's weight
off-center. Von Meyer saw that the inside of the thigh bone, which is ca-
pable of withstanding a weight of
one ton when in a vertical posi-
tion, consists not of one single
piece, but contains an orderly lat-
ticework of tiny ridges of bone
known as trabeculae.
In *866, when the Swiss engi-
neer Karl Cullman visited von
Meyer’s laboratory, the anatomist
von Meyer showed him a piece of
bone he had been studying.
Cullman realized that the bone’s
structure was designed to reduce
t*e ef*ect* of *eight load a*d
pressure. The trabeculae were ef-
fectively a series of studs and
braces arranged along the lines of
force generated when standing. As
a mathematician and engineer,
Cullman translated these findings
The Eiffel Tower was built with a structure
similar to that of the thigh bone head.
Than*s*to this design, the tower acquired
an unshakable structure*that also solved the
ventilation problem.
Harun Yahya
The latticework,
copied from bones,
has become one of
the basic elements
employed in con-
struction techniques
today. It requires
fewer materials, and
makes for a building
framework that’s
both strong and
Many architects and construction engineers duplicate the internal structure of bone,
which increases its load-bearing capabilities and provides enormous strength. Roofs *an
be built to cover large areas thanks to the use of ribbed structures similar to those in
i*to *p*l*c*bl* the*ry an* the*mod*l lead to th* de*ign of t*e Eiffel
As in *he thigh bone, the Eiffel Towe*’s met*l c*rve* forme* a latt*ce
bui*t*f*om metal studs and brace*. Thank* to this structure,*the tower w*s
easily able to stand up to the bending and shearing effects caused by the
wind. 100
Harun Yahya
The Radiolaria Design Used as a Model in Dome Design
Radiolaria and diatoms, organisms that live in the sea, are virtual c*t-
alog* of ideal solutions to *rchitectural problems. In*fact* these tiny crea-
tures have inspired a great many large-scale ar*hitectural projects. The
U.S. Pavilion at EXPO ’76 in Montreal is just one example. The pavilion’s
dome was inspired by the radiolarians. 101
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
*he E*rt*qu*ke***o*f*Design ****one***mbs
The construction of honeycomb* offers a g*eat*many important a*-
vantages, including stability. As the bees in the hive give directions to one
another in the so-called “waggle dance,” they set up vibrations that, in a
structure of such small dimensions, can be equated to an earthquake. The
walls of the comb absorb these potentially damag*ng vibrations. Nature
magazine stated that architects could use this superior structure in de-
signing e*rthquake-proof buildings. Included in the report was*the fol-
lowing statement by Jurgen Tautz of the University of Wurzburg, in
Vibrations in honeybee nests are like miniature earthquakes generated by the
bees, so it’s very interesting to see how the structure responds to it
Understanding the phase reversal could help architects predict which parts of a
building will be especially vulnerable to earthquakes They could then
strengthen these areas, or even introduce weak spots into non-critical areas of
buildings to absorb harmful vibrations. 102
As*t*is**** sh*ws* t*e**om** t*a**bees *on-
struct with such flawless preci*ion exper-
tise are marvels of design. This structure
within the comb thus paves the way for
architects and scientists, giving them
new ideas. It isn’t chance that
allows bees to construct t*eir
combs so perfectly, as evolu-
tioni*t* claim* but God, the
Lord of infinite might and
knowledge, Who gives
them that ability.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
Architectural Designs Dra*n from Spider Webs
Some spiders spin webs that resemble a tarpaulin covering thrown
o*er a bush. T*e *eb is borne by stretched thre*ds a*tached to the edges
of the bush. This load-bearing system lets the spider spread its web wide,
while still making no concessions as to its strength.
This marvelous technique has been imitated by man in many struc-
tures to cover wide areas. Some of these include the Jeddah Airport’s
Pilgrim Terminal, the Munich Olympic Stadium, the Sydney National
Athletic Stadium, zoos in Munich and Canada, Denver Airport in
Colorado, and the Schlumberger Cambridge Research Centre b*ilding in
To learn these web-building techniques all by itself, any spider
species would have to undergo a long period of engineering training.
That, of course, is out of the question. Spiders, knowing nothing about
load-bearing or architectural design, merely behave in the manner God
inspires in them.
Harun Yahya
1. The Munich Olympic Stadium
2. Munich Zoo
*. Jeddah Air**rt
4. Denver’s Airport
5. Sydney’s National Athletic Stadium
ike areas contaminated with
radioactivity and deep space,
the depths of the sea are dangerous
places for human beings. Improvements
in electroni*s and *omputer technology have let us con-
struct robots that can work in such places. Eventually, this
discipline split away from electronics and mechanics to form a
branch of *cience in its own right—robotics. These days, those
who work with robotics have a new concept on their agenda: bio-
mimetic robotics.
Scientists and engineers engaged in robotics now believe
th*t*design*n* *ob*ts for a p*rt***lar*tas* isn'**v*ry*practical.
They *onsider it easier and makes better sense to*build robots
that imitate the features and abilities of living things, indigenous
to*the*en*i*onment* whe*e these **b*** a*e t* b**e*ployed* For
desert exploration, for example, they’ll create a biomimetic robot
resembling a scorpion or an ant. A book called Neurotechnology for
Biomimet*c*Rob*ts*con*ains the f*ll*wi*g inf*r*ation ****his su*-
Biomime*ic robots differ from traditional robots in that they are agile,
relatively cheap, and able to *eal with r*al-world *nvironments. The
engineering of these robots requires a thorough understanding of the
biological systems on which they are based, at both the biomechanical
and physiological levels.
The ultimate goal is to develop a truly autonomous robot, one able
to navigate and interact with its environmen* solely on the basis of
sensory feedback without prompting from a human operator. 103
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
What le* scientists to imitate
living things was their flawless
ph**ical designs. En*ineer*H**s J.
Schneebeli, designer of the robotic
device known as the Karlsruhe
Hand, stated that the mor* he
worked on robotic hands, the more
he admired the human hand. He
added that they still need plenty of
time to duplicate even a few of the
*any task* that a h*m*n h*nd can
accomplish. 104
On occasion, scientists from such different disciplines as computer
technology, mechanics, electronics, mathematics, physics, chemistry and
biology must join forces to replicate just one feature of a living creature.
Yet evolutionist thinking still maintains that the extraordinarily complex
structures of living things could have come about unplanned, of their
own accord.
Harun Yahya
Robotics Is Imitating Snakes to Overcome the Problem of
For those engaged in robotics, one of the problems they encounter
most frequently is maintaining equilibrium. Even robots equipped with
the very latest technology can lose their balance*when walking. A th*ee-
year-old child can manage to regain balance with no difficulty, yet robots
lacking this ability are, of necessity, stationary and of very little use. In
fact, one robot that NASA prepared for duty on the planet Mars couldn’t
be *sed at all, for that very reason. After that, *obot experts abandoned at-
tempts to build a balance-establishing mechani*m and instead looked to
a creature that never loses its balance—the snake.
Unlike other vertebrates, snakes lack a hard spine and limbs, and
have been cre*ted in *uc* a way as to enter cracks and *revices. The* can
expand and contract the diameter of their bodies, can cling to branches
and glide over rocks. Snakes’ properties inspired for a new robotic, inter-
planetary probe developed by NASA's Ames Research Center which they
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
called the "snakebot." This robot thus was designed to be in a constant
state of balance, without ever getting caught up by obstacles. 105
The Balance Center in the Inner Ea* Astounds Robotics
The inner ear performs a vital role in our system of balance, control-
ling our whole body at every moment and allows us to perform the deli-
cate adjustments required by a tightrope walker, for example.
This center of balance in the inner ear, known as the labyrinth, con-
sists of three small semici*cular canals. They are 6.5 mm (0.26 in) in di-
ameter and, in cross-section, the hollow space inside them measures 0.4
mm (0.016 in). The three are laid out in orthogonal planes. An individual
canal senses rotations in one of three orthogonal directions. Thus the three
canals combine their results and give the ability to sense rotations in any
direction in three-dimensional space.
Inside each of these three canals*is a viscous fluid. At one end of the
*arun Yahya
tube is a gelatinous cap (cupu-
la), which sits on a bulged
area (crista) covered with sen-
sory ha*r cells. W*en we *urn
our heads, walk, or make any
movemen*, the fluid within
these canals lags behind be-
cause of inertia. The fluid
pushes against the cupula, de-
flecting it. This deflection is
measured by the hair cells in
the crista as the hairs’ vibra-
tion alters the ion balance in
the cells connected to them,
producing electrical signals.
These signals produced in the inner ear are transmitted by means of
nerves to the cerebellum at the back of our brain. These transmitter nerves
from the labyrinth to the cerebellum have been shown to contain 20,000
nerve fibers.
The cereb*l*um interprets this information from the labyrinth, but in
order to maintain balance, it also needs other information. Therefore, the
cerebe*lum receives c*nstant information from the eyes and from muscles
throughout the body, rapidly analyzing all this information and calculat-
ing the body’s position relative to gravity. Then, based on these instant
calculations, it notifies the muscles via*the nerves of the exact movements
they should make to maintain balance.
These extraordinary processes occur in less than 1/100th of a second.
We are able to walk, run, ride a bicycle, and play sports without even be-
*ng awar**al* **is i* goi** on. Yet *f we*e we to put down on*pa*er*all *he
calc*lations going on in our bodies at any one instant, the formulae
Anterior semicircular canal
Horizontal semicircular canal
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
Balance is brought about by a most extraordinarily complicated system, since the human
body is in constant motion. That means the *rain must constantly recalculate th* body’s
center of gravity, and send instructions to the muscles i* light of this.
would fill thousands of pages.
Totally flawless, our bal*nce system functions by means of several
very complex mechanisms, all interconnected and working together.
Modern science and technology have yet to unravel*all the details of their
operative principles, let alone imitate them.
It is of course impossible for such a complex design to have come
about by chance, as evolution theory would have us believe. Every design
reveals the existence of a conscious designer. Our balance system’s supe-
rior design is one more proof of the existence of God, Who created that
system so impeccably, and of His infinite wisdom.
Harun Yahya
I* the face of this realization, man’s resp*nsibility is to give thanks to
God, Who gave him such a structure.
A*Rob*t*Scorpion Able to Withsta*d Ha*sh *esert
In the United States, Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) is working to develop a robot scorpion. The reason the project
selected a scorpion as its model is that the robot w*s to operate in the
dese*t* Scorpi*ns*h*ve been able to survi** harsh*desert condi*ions*e*er
since the*r cr*ation. But another**e*son*why DARPA *electe**a scorpion
was that along with being able to move over tough terrain very easily, its
reflexes are much simpler t*an those of
mammals—and can be imitated. 106
Before developing their robot, the
researchers spent a long time observing
the movements of live scorpions using
high-speed cameras, and analyzed the
video data. 107 Later, the coordination
and organization of the scorpion’s legs
wer**used *s * starti** p*int f** *he
model’s creation.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
DARPA’s objective is to have its 50 cm (2* in) robot scorpion reach a
tar*et *0 *m*(*5 mi*es) a*ay in t*e desert *nd*t*** *et***—enti*e** o* its
o*******hou* r**e**i** a** ****c**o*s.***8
Designed by Frank Kirchner and Alan Rudolph at Northeastern
University in Boston, the robot has no ability to “think through” complex
problems. Upon *ncountering a diffi*ulty, it merel* relies on its ref*exes.
This allows it to overcome any obstacles that might impede its progress—
a rock, for example. At the front, the robot has two ultrasonic sensors.
Should it encounter an obstacle more than half its own height, it will try
going around it. If the detector on the left identifies an obsta*le, *t will
turn to the right. The robot can be asked to go to a specific region and,
with a cam*ra in its tail, send back to base images of the location.
The U.S. Army was greatly impressed by t*e trials held in Arizona.
Rocky terrain
Camera and radio connections
Ultrasound sensors
Infrared sensors
Harun Yahya
The scorpion robot, built using advanced technolog** possesses a complex structure.
Even though a great many scientists and engineers worked on this robot, it can only
travel towards a pre-established target.
Con*rol chip, which determines
which step will be taken first
6-volt regulator for the
control and drive chips
Interface, used for re-
**o*****i*g**** *on-
trol chip
Drive chips using 100
mAmp apiece
Warning lamps for
indicating chip
R2 connection permit-
ting two-directional
Unit serving as leg
air valves
External air cable, which feeds the air
valves with 6-bar air
1. When the robot scorpion encounters a rock, first it scans it with ultrasound to decide
whether it’s too high to climb.
2. The robot moves awa* from the obstacle and goes around it, looking for a gap with
one sensor and looking forward with the other.
*.*** fi**i** * *a*,********r****s *h***e**it*** w*d*****ugh*t* p*s**t***u**.
4. Once it moves through the gap, the scorpion moves on towards its target.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
It is hoped that the robot’s ability to find its way to a target are could be
particularly useful in cluttered battlefields such as towns. 109
Just Like a Real Lobster, This Robot Will Identify Water
Even fully-equipped human divers have difficulty in moving
*hr*ugh turbul*nt and m*rky waters, crawling along the bott*m where it
may be rough, sandy or covered with algae. Lobsters can, and very easi-
ly too. But so far, no robot made for use on the sea bed has been success-
ful in such environments.
Harun Yahya
Joseph Ayers, Director of the Marine Science Center at Northeastern
University in Boston is leading * project to*de*elop a robo* t*at imitates
the lobster. As he describes it, the project’s “technical goal is to capture the
performance advantages that the animal systems hold in the target envi-
ronment.” 110
They expect to use this “robo-lobster” in finding and disarming
mines. Ayers says the *obot will be ideally suited to this kind of work:
the sequence of behavioral acts that a lobster performs when it searches for
food is exactly what one would want a robot to perfor* to find and neutralize
underwater mines. 111
Lobsters’ shape helps them resist tumbling or moving in fast-moving
water.*They are able to proceed in the direction they want under the most
difficult conditions**even over very rou*h terrain. In t*e same way, the
robo-lobster will use its tail and claws for stability.
On the *obot, m*cro-el*ctro-mecha*ical sensors (MEMS)*imitate the
lobst*r’s sensory *rgans. Equ*pped *i*h water current sen*ors and anten-
nae, the robot can adapt its movements to the currents of the water
around it. A live lobster uses hairs to determine the direction of currents,
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
and the robot lobster’s electro-mechanical sensors are intended to do the
same thing. 112
The Lobster’s Technique for Identifying Scents
Underwater creatures such as crabs and lobsters use their sense of
smell to find food, mates or to flee from predators. One study carried out
by researchers from the Universities of California at Berkeley and
Stanford revealed how lobsters smell the world around them.
Lobsters possess a very *ensitive sense of smell, whose features will
open up new horizons for robot engineers trying to build new odor sen-
sors. Mimi A. R. Koehl, a professor of integrative biology in the College of
Letters & Science at University of California, Berkeley, says:
If you want to build unmanned vehicles or robots to go into toxic sites where
you do not want to send a scuba diver, and if you want those robots to locate
something by smell, you need to design noses or olfactory antennae for them. 113
Lobsters and other crustaceans smell by flicking a pair of antennules
tow*****he***ur*e*of **e o*o****o*tha* **e*chem*s*nso*y h*irs *n th**ends
of the antennules come into contact with the water-borne odor molecules.
*he spiny lobster Panulirus argus, which lives in the Caribbean Sea, has
a*t*nnules 30 cm (3 to
4 inches) *n l*ngth. On
the outer edge of one
of the split ends of its
antennules are hairs
resembling a brush—a
r*g*on par**c***rly
A group of re-
searchers led by
Harun Yahya
Professor Koehl made a mechanical lobster that flicked its antennules in
the same way. Tests and observations of this robot, dubbed Rasta Lobsta,
were per*or*ed*to *tudy in d*ta*l*the techniq** th*t lob*te** **ploy*in
order to smell.
When the lob-
ster wants to smell
something, d*ring
the downstroke, it
pushes the anten-
nule through the
water fast enough
for the*wa*er b*ar-
ing the odor to
Hairs on the lobster antennule
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
penetrate into the brush of sensory hairs. On the return stroke, however,
it sweeps more slowly, so the water is unable to move bet*een the hairs
and the odor plume that penetrated between *he hairs during the down-
stroke are trapped until the next rapid downstroke.
The antennules move forward and back at the ideal speed for the
lobster to be able to smell. Tests have shown that if the antennules moved
more s*o**y* **e*water would not*fl*w b****en t*e*hai*s,*r*duci*g**he
crustace*n’s ability to smell. Therefore, it uses its antennules in such a
manner that it’s able to preserve and capture even small differences in
odor concentration in a plume. 114
Structure of Worm Muscles Lead the Way to New
Mechanical Systems
The skin covering a worm’s cylindrical body consists of fibers that
are wound in a crossed helical form around and along the body—a most
impressive design. The contraction of muscles in the body wall leads to an
increase in the internal pressure, and the worm is able to change shape as
the fibers in the skin allow it to go from short and fat to long and th*n. This
is the basis of how worms move.
This matchless mechanical system is presently inspiring new projects
at Reading University’s Centre for Biomimetics. In one experiment, cylin-
ders of various fiber angles were arranged along the lines of the worm’s
anatomy. The plan is to fill these cylinders with a water-absorbent poly-
Harun Yahya
mer g*** Water causes this*g** to expand. *n th** way, chemical energ**is
converted to mechanical energy in just the right place, and the resulting
pressure will be contained *afely inside the helically-wound bag. Once
the swelling and contracting of the polymer gel is controlled, it is hoped
that the resulting system will *perate *ike an artificial muscle. 115
Every living thing that man takes as a model, and every system in it,
is a sign of God for those who believe. This truth is expressed in a verse:
And in your creation and all the creatures He has spread about
t*ere are signs for people with certainty. (Qur’an, 45: 4)
Changing shape, expanding and contracting by
the use of pressure, is frequently used in nature.
The worm, octopus, starfish and anemone are
some of the best examples; yet shape-changing
is found m*ch le** fre*ue*tly i* technologic*l
e*ui*ment.**n **ose***w example********* ex*st,
hydraulic pressure is employed. In lifts, for exam-
ple, hydraulic liquid is pumped into a thin cylinder to
raise heavy objects. To lower the lift, the cylinde* is emp-
tied again. Starfish also use hydraulic pressure to move. Along the under*ides of**ts
arms, the echinoderm possesses tube-like feet, attached to an internal, fluid-filled tub-
ing system. When its muscles co*tract the tubes, the resulting hydraulic pressure sends
fluid to the feet. Using its muscles, the starfish uses hydraulic power to set up a wave
motion in its feet, moving forward and back and allowing the starfish to progress in one
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
The Gecko’s Feet Open New Technological Horizons
These small lizards are able to run
very fast up walls and walk around
clinging to the ceiling, very comfortably.
Until recently, we didn’t understand
how it could be possible for any verte-
brate animal to climb up walls like the
cartoon and film hero Spiderman. Now,
years of research have finally uncovered
the secret on which their extraordinary ability depends. Little steps by the
gecko have led to enormous discoveries with tremendous implications,
particularly for robot designers. A few can be summarized as follows:
- Researchers in California believe that the lizard’s “sticky” toes can
help in developing a dry, and self-cleaning adhesive. 116
- Geckos’ feet generate an adhesive force 600 times greater than that
of friction. Gecko-*ike robots could climb up the walls of burning build-
Harun Yahya
ings to rescue those inside. Dry adhesives could be of great benefits in
smaller devices, such as in medical applications and computer architec-
ture. 117
- Their legs act like springs, respond*ng automatically when they
touch a surface. This is a particularly appropriate feature for robots,
which have no brain. Geckos’ feet never lose their effectiveness, no mat-
ter how mu*h they are us*d; the* are self-cleaning and they also work in
a vacuum or underwater. 118
- A dry adhesive could help hold slick body parts in place during
nanosurgery. 119
- Such an adhesive could keep car tires stuck to the road. 120
- Gecko-like robots could be used to repair cracks in ships, bridges
and piers, and in the regular maintenance of satellites. 121
- Robots modeled after the geckos’ feet could be used to wash win-
dows, clean floors, and ceilings. Not only will they be able to climb up flat
vertical surfaces, but overcome any obstacles they meet on the way. 122
reating technology—all the manufacturing
methods and*equipment used in a particular
branch of industry—is no easy matter, because
so m*ny components need to be brought to-
gether. In order to produce technology in any
given area, first of all we need to possess information. Next, the
scientists and technical personnel who are to use this informa-
tion must be added to the equation. These personnel need the
right materials and the facilities in which to make use of them.
*or all these reasons, pr*ducing technolog* i* a dif*icult bus*-
ness. Indeed, the history of those advances
we describe as “technological” is by
no me*ns a long one. *ven today,
though many countries enjoy
technology, very few of them
actually produce it.
As scientific circles have
noted, most of the technologi-
cal products emerging as the
result of investment, information
and research have their “originals”
and counterparts in nature.
Phil Gate*, a well-known scientist and author of the book
Wild Technology, expresses this in the following terms:
M*ny *f our *e*t*inventions are c*pied f*om, o* alr*ady i* us* by,
ot*er living things. We have only discovered a tiny fraction of the
va*t numbers of living org*nisms that sh*re *ur planet. Somewhere,
amongst the millions of organisms that remain undiscovered, there
are natural inventions that could improve our lives. They could pro-
vide new medicines, building materials, ways of controlling pests
and dealing with pollution. 123
Bi*mimetics: Technolo*y Imitates Nature
Every niche of our surroundings—from the sky to the land to the
depths of the oceans—are full of countless “technological” marvels, each
of them a product of creation. Even the simplest industrial product has a
designer and place where it was manufactured. That being so, it would be
obviously irrational to claim that living things, possessing systems in-
comparably superior to huge factories with their state-of-the-art machin-
ery, could have arisen through chance, by themselves, as a result of nat-
ural conditions.
Every living thing possesses a superior, perfect design that emerged
flawless and complete from*the very*day of its creation, because *od is
He Who creates flawlessly.
In this chapter we’ll examine some marvels of creation and compare
them to present-*ay techn*logy. We should regard these examples *s food
for thought, as God instructs us in the *ur'an, “An instruction and a re-
minder for every penitent human being.” (Qur’an, 50: 8)
Light Sensors in Plants
Some s*ecies of plants are acutely sensitive to changes in light inten-
sity. *hen nigh* falls, they close up the*r petals.*Some flowering plants
even do this in cloudy weather, in order—scient*sts believe—to protect
Some flowers, sensi-
tive to light, close
their petals when it
grows dark and
keep them clos*d
until dawn. Others
keep their flowers
facing the sun
throughout the day.
Harun Yahya
Above: In a light sensor, the electrical circuit consists of a great many parts. If just one is
removed or only one connection altered, the circuit fails to work. The light sensors in
plants possess a feature similar to this circuit: The slightest defici*ncy in the system will
make the sensor totally useless.
their pollen from dew and approaching rain. We humans also use sensors
that detect light intensity changes, and use them in lamps that go o* when
it gets dark at night and turn themselves off at dawn. 124
The Eider Duck and Its Insulation System
Our bodies generate *eat energy by digesting the food we’ve eaten
during the day. The best way to prevent the loss of this warmth is to keep
it from leaving our bodies too soon. That is why we wear varying layers
of clothing, depending on the
*eather. Warm air, tra*ped b*-
tween the layers, is unable to reach
outside. Preventing energy loss in
this way is known as insulation.
The eider duck employs the
exact same method. Like many
birds, its feathers enable it to fly
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
and also keep it warm. It uses its
soft and fluffy chest feathers in
building it* nest. This do*n pro-
tects the eggs and the emerging
featherless chicks from the cold air.
Since the eider’s feathers retain
warm air, they exemplify the very
best form of natural insulation. 125
Modern mountain climbers
keep their bodies warm by wear-
ing*special costumes fil*ed with
feathers with high heat-retaining properties, similar to those of eider
Fiber Optic Technology in Living Creatures
Fiber optics are transp*rent glass cables capable of t*ansmitting light.
Since optical fibers can be easily bent and twisted, they can “pipe” light
into even the most inaccessible locations* Fiber optic cables also possess
the advantage of being able to carry coded messages loaded onto them,
much better than oth*r**a*les ca*.
The polar bear’s fur is very similar to an optical fiber, carrying the
rays of the faint polar sun directly to the animal’s body. Since the fur pos-
*esses *iber*optic capabi*ities, *he sun’s rays make direct c*ntact wit* the
Optical fiber
Light being reflected
down the fiber
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bear’s skin. So great is its fur’s
capacity to transmit light that
despite the harsh polar cli-
mate, the animal’s skin
turns dark, as if sunburned.
The light, converted into
heat and absorbed, helps
warm the bear’s body.
Thanks to its fur’s unique
feature, the bear is able to keep
its body warm even under the
freezing polar conditions. 126
Bears’ fur*i* not t*eir o*** feature that we c*n*l*ar**fr*m. Th*y can
spend up to six months a year in hibernation, doing so by putting their ex-
cretory systems on hold and without suffering toxic buildups in their
****d.*D***ove**********hey*d* t*** *****h*l* ** t****ig** a*****t d**-
betes. 127
The polar bear isn’t the on-
ly living thing possessing
fiber optic technology.
Leaves of the Fenestraria
plant, which lives in the
deserts of South Africa,
are nearly entirely buried
in the sand. This protects
Fenestraria from water
loss and grazing animals.
The tip of every leaf is
transparent: Light enters
here and can travel down
t***l*a*. **h****a**** **ld
Technology, 67.)
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
In the coldest climates, local birds generally have
their feet either in cold water or standing on ice. Yet
there is no question of them ever freezing. All of them
possess circulatory systems that reduce heat loss to
a minimum. In these birds, heated and chilled
blood circulate in different blood vessels, but these
vessels run close together, however. In this way,
warm blood flowing to the extremities down-
wards warms the cold blood circulating u*-
wards. This also reduces*the shock of cold
blood returning to the body from the feet. This
natural heat exchange mechanism, known as
counter-current, is the same as that *sed in
various machine*. 128
Harun Yahya
In these counter-current heat exchangers, as engineers refer them,
two fluids (liquid or gas) flow in opposite directions in two separate but
contiguous channels. If the fluid in one channel is warmer than in the*oth-
er, heat passes from the warm fluid to the colder one.
Can Plants Use an Electrical Switch?
The carnivorous Venus flytrap catches insects that land on its hinged
trap and trigger the ha*rs on it. These hairs act like electrical switches. The
instant one is touched, it gives off electrical signals that change the water
balance in the plant’s cells,
and trigger the flow of wa-
ter out of *ells along the leaf
midrib, closing the trap. 129
The switches control-
ling the flow of current in
electrical circuits operate in
much the same way. When
the switch is turned off,
electric current cannot flow.
As soon as it is turned on
and the circuit is completed,
******r* elect*ic ******t **-
gins to flow along the wire
once again. Similarly, ani-
mals and plants use a gre*t
many biological switches to
initiate or halt the flow of
electrical signals to the rele-
vant parts of their bodies. 130
The Venus flytrap’s cir-
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
cuit actually works like two
electrical switches connected
together in series. Two hairs
must be stimulated before the
trap to close. 131 This precaution
prevents unnecessary closing
triggered by such phenomena
as raindrops.
Of course, the Venus fly-
trap knows nothing about elec-
tric current or the switches that
let these currents flow. Nor is it
possible for the plant to*receive
Switch off, circuit incomplete
Switch on, circuit
and current flows
any kind of training in these
areas. Tha* being so, how does it come by*this knowledge, which even a
human being can’t learn without special instruction, and how is it able to
employ it so flawlessly? God, the Ruler of al*, teaches the plants what to
do. The Venus flytrap acts under His inspiration.
The snail’s drilling system is even able to rasp holes in rocks.
The snail’s tongue, called a radula, resembles a large-toothed file. Thanks to this de-
sign, the mollusk is able to rasp holes in leaves and pick up algae
on rocks.
Teeth on the radula are so hard that some desert snails are
even able to make holes in rock. (Phil Gates, Wild Technology,
The giant excavators humans use to dig tunnels perform a
si*ilar function *o the radula. However, the tips of these ma-
chines’ drills wear out and have to be frequently replaced.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
*f Nerve Cells Lacked Insula*ion
Nerve fibers carry messages from the brain to the muscles and other
organs, and from there, messages back to the brain. The fibe*s *re coated
with a special, fatty substance known as myelin that works just like the
plastic insulation around an electric cable. Were it not present, then the
electrical signals would leak away into the surrounding tissues, either
garbling the message or damaging the body. 132
Harun Yahya
Electric cables are designed to protect from injury those who touch
them and also to avoid any loss of power due to electricity leakage. Tough
and durable plastics are used for this purpose.
Prairie Dogs’ Ventilation Technology
Many animals build underground shelters that require special fea-
tures to defend them from predators.
In such shelters, the tunnels need to be at a specific distance from the
surface and parallel to t*e g*ound, or*else they may easily be flooded. If
the tunnels are dug at a sharp angle, that poses a risk of collapse. Another
problem in tunnel construction is meeting the need for air and ventilation.
Prairie dogs are social ani-
mals, living in large groups in
burrows they construct under-
ground. As their population
grows, they dig new burrows,
joining them up with tunnels.
The space that such complexes
occupy can sometimes equal
the size of a small city, and thus
ventilation assumes a vital im-
portanc*.*Therefo*e pra*rie
dogs build aboveground tow-
ers where their tunnels emerge,
r*t*** *i******c*n******h*** l*t
air be drawn into the city be-
Air travels from regions of
high pressure to areas of low.
Biomim*tics: Tec*n*l*gy I*itates Nat*re
Some of the towers that prairie dogs build are taller than others. Their dif-
fere*ces in height give rise to different levels of air pressure in the tunnel
entrances. This way, air enters towers with low air pressure above them
and emerges through ones with high pressure. Air drawn into the tunnels
passes through all the nests, thus establishing an ideal air circulation sys-
tem. 133
To construct a ventilation system such as employed in prairie dogs'
tunnel*, knowledge of tunnel building, of high and low air pressure, and
how they change with altitude are all essential. All *hese considerations
require consciousness, and all these activities indicate the presence of rea-
son and judgment. T*e*ef*re, we need to exa*ine the sourc**of this intel-
ligence in the prairie dogs, since clearly it does not belong to the animals
themselves—and, contrary to what evolutionist* claim, cannot ha*e re-
sulted from blind chance.
God,*W*o provides cou*t*ess examples in nature for*mankind to
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ponder upon, created
prairie dog*, like all liv-
ing things on Earth.
Every rational person
needs to think, listen to
the voice of his con-
science and turn to God
whenever he encoun-
ters an example of beau-
ty; because God is the
All-forgiving, the Lord of infinite justice. In the Qur’an, God gives glad
tidings to servants who believe in Him:
Your *or* ****s*best wha* is ** **ur s*l*es* *f y** *r**r*ghteous,
He is Ever-Forgiving to the remorseful. (Qur’an, 17: 25)
Biomimetics: Technolo*y Imitates*Nature
Wasps and the Paper Industry
A series of chemical processes turn logs of
wood into a kind of pulp that can later be
made into paper. However, the natural inven-
tors of paper are actually wasps.
To build their nests, wasps use paper that
they make by mixing their saliva with shreds of chewed wood. Our fur-
niture industry makes chipb*ard in exactly the same way, although using
glue instead of saliva. 134
Any wasp resembles a particularly efficient tree-processing and pa-
****ma**n* f*c*o*** ****v*r,**l**o***h**processe* *arr*e* *u* *y*l*******-
dustrial complexes,
wasps perform with-
in their own tiny
bodies. The paper
industry still has a
lot to learn from
This diagram shows the
v****us ******s** i* **-
per manufacturing. If just
one of the*e stages were
sk*pped, no paper could
be pr*duced. The equiva-
lent to all these processes
is carried out in the tiny
body of the wasp, just a
few centimeters long.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
A Robotic Arm Inspired by the Elephant*s Trunk
As scientists tried to design a robotic arm, one of the worst
problems they faced was achieving freedom of movement. In order
for a robot’s arm to serve any useful purpose, it must be able to
perform all the movements required by that particular task. In
nature, God has created all creatures with the ability to move
their limbs in such a way as to meet all their needs. An ele-
phant’s trunk, with its 50,000 or so muscles, 135 is one of the most
striking examples.
The elephant is able to move its trunk in any direction it
wants and can perform tasks requiring the gre*test care an* sensi-
One robotic arm constructed in the U.S. at Rice University clearly re-
veals the elephant trunk’s superior design. There*is
no single skeleton-like structure in the trunk,
thus endowing it with enormous flexibility and
lightness. The robotic arm, on the other hand,
does have a spine. The elephant’s trunk pos-
sesses a degree of movement which allows it to
move in any direction, whil* the ro*otic arm is
*o*p***ed****3*****r*e**o**fr*ed*m *n**6
links. 136
This only goes to show that the elephant
trunk is a special structure, whose every particular
feature reveals the nature of God’s flawless art in
Left: A robotic arm with six degrees of freedom. Above: A ro-
bot*c trunk, modeled on the elephant’s, has 32 degrees of free-
dom. Elephants’ trunks have incomparably greater abilities and
freedom of movement. If they had to use these artifi*ial trunks
*nstead of their o**, they’d encounter severe difficulties.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
Scientist* are continually ama*ed*** th* in*omparabl* s*ructure* and
systems they discover in nature—and they express *heir wonder by copy-
ing them to create new technologies for mankind’s benefit. They’ve real-
ized that those impeccable systems and extraordinary techniques that na-
ture employs, far superior to their own knowledge and capabi*ities, offer
*ncomparable solutions to existing problems. Accordingly, they’re now re-
sorting t* natural designs in a great many areas where, after years *f effort,
they’ve been unable to come up with solutions. As a result, they’ve been
able to produce successful results within very short spaces of time.
Furthermore, by imitating nature, scientists have saved considerable terms
of time a*d effort, and applied material *esources far more effectively.
Recognizing the superior nature of natural designs, evolutionists are
suffering yet another disappointment, another loss of hope. Once again,
their unscientific claims that living things develop gradually, from the
simple to the complex, and that the designs of living things came about
through chance has been demonstrated to be untrue. Also, they’ve had to
accept, albeit un*illingly, that the incomparable art that has so astonished
them—that the knowledge a*d reason they so greatly admire—cannot be
the work of chance, but only of our Almighty Creator.
It is God, the Lord of the worlds, Who creates the f*awless and un-
matched systems in all liv*ng things; He Who creates everything flaw-
lessly. Those who refuse to accept this fact will suffer an irreparable sor-
row on the Day of Judgment. In the Qur’an, God describes how such peo-
ple waste their time in this world. The Qur’an describes in these terms the
impeccable nature of our Lord’s artistry:
He, Who created the seven heavens in layers. You will not find any
flaw in the creation of the*All-Merciful. Look again—do you see
any gaps? Then look again and again. Your sight will return to you
dazzled and exhausted! (Qur'an, 67: 3-4)
arwinism, in other*words the theory of
evolution, was put forward with the aim
of denying the fact of creation, but is in
truth nothing but fail*d, unscientific non-
sense. This theory, which claims that life
emerged by chance from inanimate matter, was invalidated
by the scientific evidence of clear "design" in the universe and
in living things. In this way, science confirmed the fact that
God created the universe and the living things in it. The pro-
paganda carried out today in order to keep the t*eory of evo-
lution alive is bas*d solely on the distortion of the scientific
facts, biased interpretation, and lies and falsehoods *isguised
as science.
Yet this propaganda ca*not conceal the truth. T*e fact
that the theory of evolution is the greatest deception in the
history of science has been expressed more and more in the
scientific world over the last 20-30 years. Research carried out
after the 1980s in particular has revealed that the claims of
Darwinism are totally unfounded, something that has been
stated by a large number of scientists. In the United States in
particular, many scientists from such different fields as biolo-
gy, biochemistry and*paleontology recognize the invalidity of
Darwinism and employ the fact of creation to accou*t for the
origin of life.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
We have examined the col*apse of the theo-
ry of evolution and the proofs of creation in
great scientific detail in many of our works,
and are still continuing to do so. Given the
enormous importance of this subject, it
will be of great benefit to summariz* it
T*e Scientific Collapse of
Although this doctrine goes back as far as
ancient Greece, the theory of evolution was advanced
extensively in the nineteenth century. The most important development
that made it the top topic of the world of science was Charles Darwin's
*h* Ori*in*o* Sp***es, published in 18*9. I* this boo*, he denied that*God
created di*ferent living species on Earth separately, for he claimed that
all living beings had a common ancestor and had diversified over time
through small changes. Darwin's theory was not based on any concrete
scientific finding; as he also accepted, it was just an "assumption."
Moreover, as Darwin confessed in the long chapter of his book titled
"Difficulties on Theory," the theory failed in the face of many critical
Darwin invested all of his hopes in new scientific discoveries,
which he expected to solve these difficulties. However, contrary to his
expectations, scientific findings expanded the dimensions of these diffi-
culties. The defeat of Darwinism in the face of science can be reviewed
under three basic topics:
1) The theory cannot explain how life originated on Earth.
2) No scientific fi*ding shows that the "evolutionary mechanisms"
Harun Yahya
proposed by the theory have any evolutionary power at all.
3) The fos*il record proves the exact opposite o* what the theory
In this section, we will examine these three basic points in general
The First Insurmountable Step: The Origin of Life
The theory of evolut*on posits that all living species evolved from
a single living cell that emerged on the primitive Earth 3.8 billion years
ago. How a single cell could generate millions of complex liv*ng spe*ies
and, if such an evolution really occurred, why traces of it cannot be ob-
served in the fossil record are some of the questions that the theory*can-
not ans*er. However, first and foremost, we *eed to ask: How did this
"first cell" originate?
Since the theory of evolution denies creation and any kind of su-
pe*n*tural*i*tervent*on, it maintains that the "first cell" originated coin-
cidentally within the laws of nature, without any design, plan or
arrangement. Acc*rding to the the*ry, inanimate matter must have pro-
duced a living cell as a result of coincidences. Such a claim, however, is
inconsist*nt with the most unassailable rules of biology.
"Life Comes From Life"
In his book, Darwin never referred to the origin of life. The primi-
tive understanding of science in his time rested on the assumption that
living beings had a very simple structure. Since medieval times, spon-
taneous generation, which asserts that non-living materials came to-
gether to form living organi*ms, had been widely accepted. It was com-
monly believed that insects came into *eing from food leftovers, and
B*omimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
mice from wheat. Interesting experiments
were conducted to prove this theory.
Some wheat was placed on a dirty piece
of cloth, an* it was believed that mice
would originate from it after a while.
Similarly, maggots developing
in rotting meat was assumed to be
evidence of spontaneous genera-
tion. However, it was later *n-
derstood that worms did not
appear on meat spontaneously,
but were carried there by flies in
the form of larvae, invisible to
the naked eye.
Even when Darwin wrote The
French chemist Louis Pasteur
Origin of Species, the belief that bac-
ter*a could*c*me**nto *xis*enc* fro* no*-*iv*ng ***ter *as*wid*l* ac-
cepted in the world of science.
However, five years after the publication of Darwin's book, Louis
Pasteur announced his results *fter long studies and experiments, that
disproved spontaneous generation, a corner*tone of Darwin's theory. In
his triumphal lecture at the Sorbonne in 1864, Pasteur said: "Never will
the doctrine of spontaneous generation recover from the mortal blow
struck by this simple experiment." 137
For a long time, advocates of the theory of evolution resisted these
findings. However, as the development of science unraveled the com-
plex structure of the cell of a living being, the idea that life could come
in*o b*ing *oi*cidental*y faced an eve* gre*ter impasse.
Harun Yahya
Inconclusive Efforts *f the
Twentieth Century
The first evolutionist who took up
the subject o* the origin of life in the
*we**ie** ce*t*ry*was t** *e***n*d
Russian biologist *lexander Oparin.
With various theses he advanced in the
1930s, he tried to prove that a living cell
could originate by coincidence. These
studies, however, were doomed to failure,
and Oparin had to make the following confes-
R**si** bi*logist Alexa*der****rin
Unfortunately, however, the problem of
the origin of the cell is perhaps the most obscure point in the whole study of the
evolution of organisms. 138
Evolutionist followers of Oparin tried to carry out experiments to
so*ve this problem. The best known experiment was carried out by the
Ameri*an chemist Stanley Miller in 1953. Combining the gases he al-
leged to have existed in the primordial Earth's atmosphere in an *xper-
iment set-up, and adding energy to the mixtur*, Miller synthesized sev-
eral organic molecules
(amino acids) present in
the structure of proteins.
Barely a few years
had pas*ed before it was
revealed that this experi-
ment, which was then
presented as an important
Stanley Miller
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
step in the name of evolution, was invalid, for the atmosphere used in
the experiment was very different from the real Earth conditions. 139
After a long *ilence, Miller *onfessed th*t the atmosphere me*ium
he used wa* unrealistic. 140
All the evolutionists' efforts throughout the twentieth century to
explain the origin of life ended in failure. The geochemist Jeffrey Bada,
from the San Diego Scripps Institute accepts this fact in an article pub-
lished in Earth magazine in 1998:
Today as we leave the twentieth century, we still face the biggest unsolved p*ob-
lem that we had when we entered the twentieth century: How did life originate
on Earth? 141
One*of the evolutionists’ gravest decept*ons is the way they imagine that life could have
emerged spontaneously on what they refer to as the primitive Ear*h, represente* *n the
picture above. They tried to prove these claims with such studies as the Miller experi-
ment. Yet they again suffered defea* in the face of the scientific facts: The results ob-
tained in *he 1970s proved that the atmosphere on what they describe as the primitive
E*rth **s t*tally**nsuited to life.
One of the facts nulli-
fying the theory of evo-
lution is the *ncredibly
complex structure of life.
The DNA molecule located i* the
nucleus of cells of living beings is an
example of this. The DNA is a sort of databank
formed of the arrangement of four different
molecules in different sequences. This data-
bank contains the codes of all the physical traits
of that living being* When the human DNA is put
into writing, it is calculated that this would result
in an encyclopedia made up of 900 volumes.
Unquestionably, such extraordinary information definitively
refutes the concept of coincidence.
The Complex Structure of Life
The primary reason why the theory of evolution ended up
in such a great impasse regarding the origin of life is that even those
*iving organisms deemed*to be the simples* hav***ncredibly comp*ex
structures. The cell of a living thing is more complex than all o* our
man-made technological products. Today, even in the most developed
laboratories of the world, a*living cell canno* be produce* by bringing
organic chemicals together.
The conditions requ*red for the formation of a cell are too great in
quantity to be explained away by coincidences. The probability of pro-
teins, the building blocks of a cell, being synthesized coincidentally, is 1
in 10 950 for an average protein made up of 500 amino acids. In mathe-
matics* a probability smaller than 1 over 10 50 is considered*to be impos-
sible in practical terms.
The DNA **lec*l*, wh*ch is loc*ted i* the *ucleus of a cell *nd
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
which stores genetic information, is an incredible databank. If the in-
formation coded in DNA were written down, it would make a giant li-
brary consisting of an estimated 900 volumes of encyc***edias consist-
ing of 500 pages each.
A very interesting dilemma emerges at this point: DNA can repli-
cate itself only with the help of s*me specialized proteins (enzymes).
However, the *ynthesis of these enzymes c*n be real*zed only by th* in-
formation coded in DNA. As they both depend on each other, they have
to exist at the same time for replication. This brings the scenario that life
originated by itself to a deadlock. Prof. Leslie Orgel, an evolutionist of
repute from the University of *an Diego, Califor*ia, co*fesses this fact
in the September 1994 issue of the Scientific American magazine:
It is extreme*y impro*able that pro*eins and*nucleic acids, both of which a*e
structurally complex, arose spontaneously in the same place at the same time.
Yet it also seems impossible to have one without the other. And so, a* first
glance, one might h*ve to conclude that life could never, in fact, have originat-
ed by*chemic*l means. 142
No doubt, if it is
impossible for life to
have originated from
natural causes, then it
has to be accepted
that life was "created"
in a supernatural
way. This f*ct explic-
itly invalidates the
theory of *volution,
whose main purpose
is to deny creation.
Harun Yahya
Imaginary Mechanism of Evolution
The second important point that negates
Darwin's theory is that both co*cepts put forward
by the theory as "evolutionary mechanisms" were
unders*ood to have, in reality, no evol*tionary
Darwin based *is evolution allegation entirely
on the mechanism of "natural selection." The
importance he placed on this
mechanism was evident in the
name of his book: The Origin of
Species, By Means of Natural
Natural selection holds that
those living things that are
stronger and more suited to the
natural conditions of their habitats
will survive in the struggle for life.
For example, in a deer herd under
the threat of attack by wild ani-
mals, those that can run faster will
survive. Therefore, the deer herd
will be comprised of faster and
stronger individuals. However,
unquest*onably, this mechanism
will not cause deer to evolve and
transform themselves into another
l*ving speci*s, f*r insta*c*, hor*es.
Therefore, the mechanism of
French naturalist Lamarck
Lamarck believed that giraffes evolved
from such animals as antelopes. In his
view, the necks of these grass-eating ani-
mals gradually grew longer, and they
*ven*********rne****** gi******.***e l**s
of inheritance discovered by Mendel in
1865 proved that it was impossible for
properties acquired during life to be hand-
ed *n to subsequent generations.
Lamarck’s giraffe fairy tale was thus con-
signed to the wastebin of history.
Biomimet*cs: Technology Imitates Nature
natural selection has no evolutionary power. Darwin was also aware of
this fact and had to state this in his book The Origin of Species:
Natural selection*can do noth*ng*until favour*ble individual d*fferences *r vari-
ations occur. 143
Lamarck's Impact
So, how could these "favorable variations" occur? Darwin tried to
answer this question from the standpoint of the pri*itive understand-
ing of science at that time. According to the French biologist Chevalier
de Lamarck (1744-1829), who lived before Darwin, living creatures
passed on the traits they acquired during their lifetime to the next gen-
eration. He asserted that these traits, which accumulated from one gen-
eration to another, *aused new species to be formed.*For i*stance, *e
claimed that giraffes evolved from antelopes; as they struggled to eat
the leaves of high trees, their necks were extended from generation to
Acci**ntal *utat*o** de*elop in-
to defects in humans as well as
Chernobyl disaster is an eye-
opener for the effects of muta-
Darwin also gave similar examples.
In his book The Origin of Species, for in-
stance, he said that some bears going into
wate* to find food transfor*ed the*-
selves into whales over time. 144
However, the laws of inheritance dis-
covered by Gregor Mendel (1822-84) and
verified by the science of genetics, which
flourished in the twentieth century, utter-
ly demolished the legend that acquired
traits were passed on to subsequent gen-
erations. Thus, natural selection fell out of
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favor*as an evolutionary mechanism.
Neo-Darwinism and Mutations
In order to find a solution, Darwinists advanced the "Modern
Synthetic Theory," or as it is more commonly known, Neo-Darwinism,
at the end of the 1930s. Neo-Darwinism added mutations, which are
distortions formed in the genes of living beings due to such external fac-
tors as radiation or replication errors, as the "cause of favorable varia-
tions" in addition to natural mutation.
Today, the model that stands for evolution in the world is Neo-
Darwinism. The theory maintains that millions of living beings formed
as a result of a process whereby numerous complex organs of these or-
ganisms (e.g., ears, eyes,*lungs, and wings) underwent "mutations," that
is, genetic disorders. Yet, there is an outright scientific fact t*at totally
undermines this theory: Mutation* do not cause li*ing beings to devel-
op; on the contrary, they are always harmful.
The reason for this is very simple: DNA has a very complex struc-
ture, and random effects can only harm it. Th* American geneticist B. G.
Ranganathan explains this as follows:
First, genuine mutations are very rare in nature. Secondly, most mutations are
harmful since they are random, rather than orderly changes in the structure of
genes; any random change in a highly ordered system will be for the wors*, not
for the better. For example, if an earthquake were to shake a highly ordered
structure such as a *uilding, there would be a random *hange in*the framework
of the building which, in all probability, would not be an improvement. 145
Not surprisingly, no mutation example, which is u*eful, that is,
which is observed to develop the genetic code, has been observed so far.
All mutations have proved to be harmful. It was understood that muta-
tion, which is presented as an "evolutionary mechanism,* is actually a
*iomime*i****Tec***log* *mit**** Nat*re
The larger picture belongs to a 100-million-year-old Nautilus fossil. On the left is a
Nautilus living in our day. When we compare the fossil with today’s Nautilus (on the
*igh* is the cross section of *he c*eature’s shell), we see *ha* t*ey both have the *ame
identical characteristics.
genetic occurrence that harms living things, and leaves them disabled.
(The mos* common effect of mutation on human beings is cancer*) Of
course, a destructive mechanism cannot be an "evolutionary mecha-
nism." Natural selection, on the other hand, "can do nothing by itself,"
as Darwin also accepted. This fact shows us that there is no "evolution-
ary mechanism" in nature. Since no evolutionary mechanism exists, *o
such any imaginary process called "evolution" could have taken place.
The Fossil Record: No Sign of Int*rmediate Forms
The clearest evidence that the scenario suggested by the theory of
evolution did not take place is the fossil record.
According to this theory, every living species has sprung from a
predecessor. A previously existing species turned into something else
over time and all species have come into being in this way. In other
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words, this transformation procee*s gradually over millions of years.
Ha* th*s been the case, nume**us interme*iary species*should
have existed and lived within this long transformation period.
For instance, some half-fish/half-reptiles should have lived in the
past which had acquired some reptilian traits in addition to the fish
traits they already had. Or t*ere should have existed some reptile-birds,
which acquired s*me bird traits in addition to the reptilian traits they
already had. Since these would be in a transitional phase, they should
be disabled, defective, crippled living beings. Evolutionists refer to
these imaginary creatures, which they be*ieve to have lived in the past,
as "transitional forms."
If such animals ever really existed, there should be millions and
even billions of them in number and variety. More importantly, the re-
mains of these strange creatures should be present in the fossil record.
In The Origin *f Species, Darwin explained:
If my theory be true, numberless intermediate varieties, linking most closely all
of the species of the same group together must assuredly have existed
Consequently, evidence of their former existence could be found only amongst
fossil remains. 146
Darwin's Hopes Shattered
However, although evolutionists have been making strenuous ef-
forts to find fossils since the middle of the nineteenth century all over
the world, no transitional forms have yet been uncovered. All of the fos-
sils, contrary to the ev*lutionists' expectations, sho* that life appeared
on Earth all of a sudden and fully-**rmed.
One famous British paleontologist, Derek V. Ager, admits this fact,
even thoug* he is an evolutionist:
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
Evolutionist newspapers and maga-
zines often print pictures of primitive
man. The only available source for
these pictures is the imagination of
the artist. Evolutionary theory has
been so dented by scientific data that
today we see less and less of it in the
serious press.
The point emerges that if we examine
the fossil record in detail, whether at
the level of orders or of species, we
find – over and over again – not
gradual evolution, but the sudden ex-
plosion*of one gro*p at the expense of
This means that in the fos-
sil record, all livi*g spe*ies
suddenly emerge as fully
formed, without any intermediate forms in between. This is just the op-
posite of Darwin's assumptions. Also, this is very strong evidence that
all living things are created. The only explanation of a living species
emergin* suddenly and complete in every detail without any evolu-
tionary ancestor is that it was created. This fact is admitted also by the
widely known e*olutionist biologist Douglas Futuyma:
Creation and evolution, between them, exhaust the possible explanations for the
origin of living things. Organisms either appeared on the earth fully developed
or they did not. If they did not, they must have developed from pre-existing
species by some process of modification. If they did appear in a fully developed
state, they must indeed have been created by some omnipotent intelligence. 148
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Fossils show that living beings emerged fully developed and in a
perfect state on the Earth. That means that "the origin of species," con-
trary to Darwin's supposition, is not evolution, but creation.
The Tale of Human Evolution
The subject most often brought up by advocates of the theory of
evolution i* the subject of the origin of man. The Darwinist claim holds
that modern man evolved from ape-like creatures. *uring this alleged
evolutionary process, which is supposed to h*ve started 4-5 million
years ago, some "transitional forms" between modern man and his an-
cestors are supposed to have existed. According to this completely
imaginary scenario, four basic "categories" are listed:
1. Australopithecus
2. Homo habilis
3. Homo erectus
4. Homo sapiens
Evolutionists call*man'* so*called *irst ape-like ancestors
Australopithecus, which means "South African ape." These living beings
a*e actually nothing but an old ape species that ha* become extinct.
Extensive research done on various Australopithecus specimens by two
world famous anatomists from England and the USA, namely, Lord
Solly Zuckerman and Prof. Charles Oxnard, *hows that these apes be-
longed to an ordinary ape species that became extinct and bore no re-
semblance to humans. 149
Ev**utionists c*a*s*** the next stage**f *uma* evoluti** a* "h*mo*"
that is "man." According to their claim, the living beings in the Homo
series are more developed th*n Australopithecus. Evolu*ionists devise a
fanciful evolution scheme by arranging different fossils of these crea-
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
*ures in a particular order. This scheme is im*gina*y*because it has *ev-
er been proved that there is an evolutionary relation between these dif-
ferent classes. Ernst Mayr, one of the twentieth century's most impor-
tant evolutionists, contends in his book One Long Argument that "partic-
ularly historical [puzzles] such as the origin of life or of Homo sapiens,
**e extremely difficult*a*d may even*r*sist a **nal* satisfying explan*-
tion." 150
By outlining the link chain as Australopithecus > Homo habilis >
Homo erectus > Homo sapiens, evolutionists imply that each of these
species is one another's ancestor. However,*recent findings of paleoan-
thro**log*sts have revealed that Australopithecus, Homo habilis, and
Homo erectus*lived at differen* parts of the world at the same time. 151
Moreover, a certain segment of humans classified as Homo erectus
have lived up until very modern times. Homo sapiens nean*arthalensis
and Homo sapiens sapiens (modern man) co-existed in the same region. 152
This situation apparently indicates the invalidi*y of the claim that
they are ancestors of one another. Stephen Jay Gould explained this
deadlock of the theory of evolution, although he was himself one of the
leading advocates of evolution in the twentieth century:
What has become of our ladder if there are three coexisting lineages of hominids
(A. afric*nus, the robust australopithecines, and H. habilis), none clearly de-
rived from*another? Mor*over, *one of the t*ree display any evolutiona*y
trends during their tenure on earth.153
P*t*brief*y* t*e scenario *f human evolution, which i* "upheld"
with the help of various drawings of some *half ape, half human" crea-
tu*es*appear*n* in the me*ia and cour** boo*s, that is, frankly, by
means of propaganda, is nothing but a tale with no scientific founda-
Lord Solly Zuckerman, one of the most famous and respected sci-
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entists in the U.K., who carried out research on this subject*for years and
studied Australopithecus fossils for 15 years, finally concluded, despite
being an evolutionist himself, that there is, in fact, no such family tree
bran*hing *ut from ap*-like creatur*s to man.
Zuckerman also made an interesting "spectrum of science" ranging
from those he considered scientific to those he considered unscientific.
*ccording to Zu*ker*an's spectrum, th* most *scien*ific" – that is, de-
pending on concrete data – fields of science are chemistry and physics.
After them come the biological sciences and then the social sciences. At
the far end of the spectrum, which is the part considered to be most "un-
scientific," are "extra-sensory perception" – concepts such as telepathy
and sixth sense – and finally "human evolution." Zuckerman explains
his reasoning:
We then move right off the register of objective truth into those fields of pre-
sumed biological science, like extrasensory perception or the interpretation of
man's fossil history, where to the faithful [evolutionist] anything is possible –
and where the ardent believer [in evolution] is sometimes able to believe sever-
al contradictory things at the same time. 154
T** ***e*** **m****voluti*****i******n *o n***in* b****he*****u-
diced interpretations of some fossils unearthed by certain people, who
bl*ndly adhere*to their theory.
Darwinian Formula!
Be*ides all the tech*ical evidence we have dealt with so far, let us
now for once, examine what kind of a superstition the evolutionists
have with an example so simple as to be understood even by chi*dren:
The theory of evolution asserts that *ife is formed by chance.
According to this claim, lifeless and unconscious atoms came together
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
to form the cell and then they somehow formed other living things, in-
cluding man. Let us think about that. When we bring together the ele-
ments that are the building-blocks of life such as carbon, phosphorus,
nitrogen and potassium, only a heap is formed. No matter what treat-
ments it undergoes, this atomic heap cannot form even a single living
being.*If you like, let us formulate an "experiment" *n this s*bject and
let us examine on the behalf of evolutionists what they really claim
without pronouncing loudly under the name "Darwinian formula":
Let evolutionists put plenty of materials present in the composi-
tion of liv*ng things such as phosphorus, *i*rogen, c*rbon, oxygen, iron,
and m*gnesium into big barrels. Moreover, let them ad* in these bar-
Compared to cameras and sound record*ng devices, the eye and ear are
much more complex,*m*ch more successful and possess f*r supe*ior
features to these products of high technology.
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rels any material that does
not exist under normal
conditions, but they think
as necessary. Let them add
in this mixture as many
*mino acids and as many
proteins – a single one of
which has a formation
probability of 10 -950 – as
they like. Let them expose
these mixtures to as much
*eat and moisture as they
like. Let them stir these
with whatever technologically developed device they like. Let them put
the foremost scientists beside these barrels. Let these experts wait in
turn beside these barrels for billions, *nd*even trillions of years. Let
them be free to use all kinds of conditions they believe to be necessary
for a human's formation. No matter what they do, they cannot produce
from these barrels a human, say a professor that examines his cell struc-
ture und*r the electron microscope. They cannot produce giraffes, lions,
bees, canaries, horses, dolphins, roses, orchids, lilies, carnations, ba-
nanas, oranges, apples, dates, tomatoes, melons, watermelons, figs,
olives, grapes, peaches, peafowls, pheasants, multicoloured butterflies,
or millions of other living beings such as these. Indeed, they could not
obtain even a single cell of any one of them.
Briefly, unconscious atoms cannot form the cell by coming togeth-
er. They cannot take a new decision and divide this cell into two, then
take other decisions and create the professors who first invent the elec-
tron microscope and then examine their own cell struct*re under that
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
Technology in the Eye and the Ear
microscope. M*tter is
an unconscious,*lifeless
heap, and it comes to
life with God's superior
The theory of evo-
lution, which claims the
*pposite, is a total falla-
cy completely contrary
to reason. Thinking
even a little bit on the
claims of evolutionists
disclose* this r*ality,
just as in the above ex-
Another subject that remains unanswered by evolution*ry theory
is the excellent quality of perception in the eye and the ear.
Before passing on to the subject of the eye, let us briefly answer the
question of how we see. Light rays coming from an object fall opposite-
ly on the eye's retina. Here, these light rays are transmitted into electric
signals by cells and reach a tiny spot at the back of the brain, the "cen-
ter of vision." These electric signals are perceived in this center as an
image after*a series of processes. With this technical background, let us
do some thinking.
The brain is insulated from light. That means that its inside is com-
pletely dark, and that no light reaches the place where it is located.
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never touched by light and may
even be the darkest place you
have ever known. However,
you observe a luminous, bright
world in this pitch darkness.
The image formed in the
eye is so sharp and distinct that
even the technology of the
twentieth century has not been
able to attain it. For instance,
look at the book you are read-
ing, you* hand* with which **u
are holding it, and then lift your
head and look around you.
Have you ever seen such a
sharp and distinct image as this
one at any other place? Even the most developed television screen pro-
duced by the greatest television producer in the world cannot provide
such a sharp image for you. This is a three-dimensional, colored, and
extremely sharp image. For more than 100 years, thousands of engi-
neers have been trying to achieve this sharpness. Factories, huge
premises were establ*shed, much resea*ch has been done, plans and de-
signs have been made for this purpose. Again, look at a TV screen and
the book you hold in your hands. You will see that there is a big differ-
ence in sharpness and distinction. Moreover, the TV screen shows you
a two-dimensional image, whereas with your eyes, you watch a three-
dimensional perspective with depth.
For many years, tens of thousands of engineers have tried to make
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
a three-dimensional TV and achieve the vision quality of the eye. Yes,
they have made a three-dimensional television system, but it is not pos-
s*ble to*wa*ch it witho*t p*tting on*spec*a* 3-D gl*sses; mor*over, it*is
o*ly *n artificial three-dimension. The background is*m*re*b*urred, the
foreground appears like a paper setting. Never has it been possible to
produce a sharp and distinct vision like that of the eye. In both the cam-
era and the television, there is a loss of image quality.
Evolutionists claim that the mechanism producing this sharp and
distinct image has been formed by chance. Now, if somebody told you
that the television in your room was formed as a result of chance, that
all of its atoms just happene* to come together and make up this device
that produces*an image, what would you think? How can atoms do
what thousands of people cannot?
If a device producing a more primitive image than the eye could
not have be*n formed by chance, then it is very evident that the eye and
the image *een by the*e*e could not have been f*rmed by chance. The
same situation applies to the ear. The outer ear picks up the available
sounds by the auricle and directs them to the middle ear, the middle ear
transmits the sound vibrations by intensifying them, and the inner ear
sends these vibrations to the brain by translating them into electric sig-
nals. Just as with the eye, the act of hearing finalizes in the center of
hearing in the brain.
The situation in the eye is also true for the ear. That is, the brain is
insulated from sound just as it is from light. It does not let any sound in.
Th*re*ore, no matter how*noisy is th* out*i*e* the *ns*de o* the brain*is
completely silent* Nevertheless, the sharpest sounds are perceived in
the brain. In your completely silent brain, you listen to symphonies, and
hear all of the noises in a crowded place. However, were the sound lev-
el in your brain*measured by a precise device at that moment, complete
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We live our whole life in our brains. People we see, flowers we smell* music we hear,
fruit we taste, the moisture we feel with our hands—all these are impressions that
become "reality" in the brain. But no colors, voices or pictures exist there. We live in
an environment of electrical impulses. This is no theory, but the scientific explana*ion
of how we perceive the outside world.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
silence would be found to be prevailing there.
As is the case with imagery, decades of effort have been spent in
trying to generate and reproduce sound that is faithful to the original.
The results of these efforts are sound recorders, high-fidelity*systems,
and systems for sensing sound. Despite all of this technology and the
thousa*d* of e**ineers an* ex*e*ts*who have *een working*on this*en-
deavor, no s*und has yet been obtained that has the same sharpness
and clarity as the sound perceived*by*the ea*. Think of the highest-qual-
ity hi-f* systems produced *y *he largest company in the music indus-
try. Even in these devices, when sound is recorded some of it is lost; or
when you turn on a hi-fi you always hear a hissing sound before the
music starts. However, the sounds that are the products of the human
body's technology are extremely sharp and clear. A human ear never
perceives a sound accompanied by a hissing sound or with atmospher-
ics as does a hi-fi; rather, it perceives sound exactly as it is, sharp and
clear. This is the way it has been since the creation of man.
So far, no man-made visual or recording apparatus has been as sen-
sitive and successful in perceiving sensory data as are the eye and the
ear. However, as far as seeing and hearing are concerned, a far greater
truth lies beyond all this.
To Whom Does the Consciousness that Sees and Hears
within the Brain Belong?
Wh* watches an alluring world in the brain, listens t* symphonies
and the twittering of birds, and smells the rose?
The stimulations coming from a person's eyes, ears, and nose trav-
el to the brain as *lectro-chemical nerve impulses. In biology, physiolo-
gy, and biochemistry books, you *a* fin* many details about how*this
image forms in the bra*n. H*w*ver, you will neve* come a*ross the
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most imp*rtant fact: Who perceives these electro-chemical nerve im-
pulses as images, sounds, odors, and sensory events in the brain? There
is a consciousness in the brain that perceives all this without feeling any
need for an eye, an ear, and a nose. To whom does this consciousness
belong? Of course it does not belong to the nerves, the fat layer, and
neurons comprising the brain. T*is is why D*rwinist-materiali*ts, who
believe that everything is comprised of matter, cannot answer these
For this consciousness is the spirit created by God, which needs
neither the eye to watch the images nor the ear to hear the sounds.
Furthermore, it does not need the brain to think.
Everyone who reads this explicit and scientific fact should ponder
on Almighty God, and f*ar and seek refuge in Him, for He squeezes the
entire universe in a *itch-dark place of a few cubic centimeters in a
three-dimensional, colored, shadowy, and luminous form.
A Materialist Faith
The information we have presented so far shows us that the *heo-
ry of evolution is incompatible with scientific findings. The theory's
claim regarding the origin of life is*inconsistent with science, the evolu-
tionary mechanisms it proposes have no evolutionary power, and fos-
sils demonstrate that the required intermediate forms have never exist-
ed. So, it certainly follows that the theory of evolution should be pushed
aside as an unscientific idea. This is how many ideas, such as the Earth-
centered universe model, have been taken out of the agenda of science
throughout history.
However, the theory of evolution is kept on the agenda of science.
Some people even try to represent criticisms directed against it as an
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
"attack on science." Why?
The reason is that this theory is an indispe*sable dogmatic belief
for some circles. These circles are blindly devoted to materialist philos-
ophy and ado*t Darwinism because it is the only materialist explana-
tion that can be put forward to explain the workings of nature.
Interestingly enough, they also confess this fact from time to time.
A well-known geneticist and an outspoken evolutionist, Richard C.
Lewontin from Harvard University, confesses that he is "first and fore-
most a materialist and then a scientist":
It is not that the me*hods and institutions o* science somehow *ompel us accept
a material explanation of the phenomenal world, but, on the contrary, that we
are*forced by our a priori adherence to material causes to create an apparatus of
investigation and a set of concepts that produce*material explanatio*s, no mat-
ter how counter-intuitive, no matter how mystifying to the uninitiated.
Moreover, that materialism is absolute, so we cannot allow a Divine Foot in the
door. 155
These are explicit statements that Darwinism is a dogma kept alive
just for the sake*of ad*erence to materialism. This dogma maintains **at
ther* is no being save matter* Theref*re, it argues that inanimat*, un-
conscious matter created life. It insists that millions of different living
species (e.g., birds, fish, giraffes, tigers, insects, trees, flowers, whales,
and human *ein*s) origina**d as a result *f the inter**tions between
matter such as pouring rain, lig*tning flashes, and so on, out of inani-
mate matter* Th** is * precept contr**y b*t***o r**son and sci*nce. Y*t
Darwinists continue*to defend it just so as "*ot to allow a Divine Foot in
the door."
Anyone who does not look at the origin of living beings with a ma-
terialist prejudice will see this evident truth: All *iving beings are works
of a Creator, Who is All-Powerful, All-Wise, and All-Knowing. This
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The magicians of Pharaoh were authorities
on subjects ranging from astronomy to
medicine. They exploited their prestige to
influence the public and only to reinforce
the oppressive rule of Pharaoh. Above is
an ancient Egyptian relief showing the ma-
gicians holding the world.
Anyone free of prejudice and
the influence of any particular ide-
ology, who uses only his or her
reason and logic, will clearly un-
derstand that belief in the theory
of evolution, which brings to
**** th**s****s***i*n* *f **ci***es
with no knowledge *f science or
civilization, is quite impossible.
As explained above, those
who believe in the theory of evo-
lution think that a few atoms and
molecules thrown into a huge vat could produce thinking, reasoning
professors and university students; such scientists as Einstein and
Galileo; such artists as Humphrey Bogart, Frank Sinatra and Luciano
Pavarotti; as well as antelopes, lemon trees, and carnations. Moreover,
as the scientists and professors who believe in this nonsense are edu-
cated people, it is quite justifiable to speak of this theory as "the most
potent spell in history." Never before has any other belief or ide* so tak-
en away peoples' powers of reason, refused to allow them to think in-
Creator is God, Who created the
whole universe from non-exis-
tence, designed it in the most per-
fect form, and fashioned all living
The Theory of Evolution: The
Most Potent Spell in the
In t*e same way that the beliefs of people who worshipped crocodiles now seem odd
and unbelievable, so the beliefs of Darwinists are just as incredible. Darwinists regard
chance and lifeless, unconscious atoms as a creative force, and are as devoted to that
belief as if to a religion.
telligently and l*gically, and hidden t*e truth fro* them as if*they had
been blindfolded. This is an ev*n worse and unbelievab*e blindness
than the Egyptians worshipping the Sun God Ra, totem worship in
some parts of Africa, the people of Saba w*rshipping the Sun, the tribe
of Prophet Abraham (p*uh) worshipping idols they had made with
their own hands, or the people of Prophet Moses (pbu*) worshipping
the Golden Calf.
In fact, God has pointed to this lack of r*ason in the Qur'an. In
ma*y*v*rs*****e ****als*tha* so*e*peo*les'*min*s***ll be*cl**e* *nd
that they will be powerless to see the truth. Some of these*verses are as
As for those who do not believe, it makes no difference to them
whether you warn them or do not warn *hem, they will no* believe.
God has sealed up their hearts and hearing and over their eyes is a
blindfold. They will have a terrible punishment. (Qur'an, 2:6-7)
… They have hearts with which they do not understand. They have
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eyes with which they *o not see. The* have ears with which they
do not hear. Such people are like cattle. No, they are even further
astray! They are the unawar*. (Qur'an, 7:179)
Even if We opened*up to th*m a door into heaven, and t*ey sp*nt
the day ascending through it, they would only say: "Our eyesight
is befuddled! Or rather we have been put under a spell!" (Qur'an,
Words cannot express just how astonishing it is that this spell
should hold such a wide community in thrall, keep people from the
truth, and not be broken for 150 years. It is understandable that o*e or
a few people might believe in impossible scenarios and claims full of
stupidity a*d illogicality. However, "magic" is the only possible expla-
nation for people from all over the world believing that unconscious
*nd lifeless atoms suddenly decided to come together and form a uni-
verse that functions with a flawless system of organization, discipline,
reason, and consciousness; a planet named Earth with all of its features
so perfectly suited to life; and living things full of countless complex
In fact, the Qur'an relates the incident of Prophet Moses (pbuh) and
Pharaoh to show that some people who support atheistic philosophies
actually influence others by magic. When Pharaoh was told about the
true religion, he told Prophet Moses (pbuh) to meet with his own magi-
cians. When Moses (pbuh) did so, he told them to demonstrat* their
abilities first. The verses continue:
He said: "You throw." And when they threw, they cast a spell on the
people'* eye* and caused them to feel great fear*of them. They pro-
duced an extremely powerful magic. (Qur'an, 7:116)
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
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As we have seen, Pharaoh*s magicians were able to d*ceive every-
one, apart from Moses (pbuh) and those who believed in him. However,
his evidence broke the spell, or "swallowed up what they had forged,"
as the verse puts it:
We revealed to Moses, "Throw down your staff." And it immedi-
ately swallowed up what they had forged. So the Truth took place
and*what they did was shown to be false. (Qur'an, 7:117-118)
As we can see* *hen people r*alized that a*spell had be*n cast*up-
on them and that what they saw was just an illusion, Pharaoh's magi-
cians lost all credibility. In the present d*y too, unless those who, under
the influence of a similar spell, believe in these ridiculous claims under
their scientific disguise and spend their lives defending them, abandon
their superstitious beliefs, they also will be humiliated when the full
truth emerges and the spell is broken. In fact, world-renowned British
writer and philosopher Malcolm Muggeridge, who was an atheist de-
fen*ing evolution for some 60 years, but who subsequently realized the
truth, *eveals the position in which the theory of evolution would find
itself in the near future in these terms:
I myself am convinced that the theory of evolution, especially the extent to
which it's b*en applied, will be one o* the great jokes in the history books in the
future. Posterity will m*rvel t*at so very flimsy and dubious an hypothesis
could be acce*ted with the incredible credulity that it has. 156
That future is not far off: On the contrary, people will soon see that
"chance" is not a deity, and will look back on the theory of evolution as
the worst deceit and the most terrible spell in the world. That*spell is al-
ready rapidly beginning to be lifted from the shoulders of people all
over the world. Many people who see its true face are wondering with
amazement how they could ever have been taken in by it.
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
* Na*o***h*o**** **an* **i**i** *o**-
thing by manipulating the placement of
pieces that vary in size from 0.1 to 100
nanometers (nm)—roughly the range of
size between atoms and molecules.
2 Janine M. Benyus, Biomimicry,
Innovation Inspired By Nature, William
Morrow and Company Inc., New York,
3 “Biomimicry,” Buckminster Fuller
4 Michelle Nijhuis, High Country News,
July 06, 1998, vol. 30, no. 13;
5 Phil*p Bal*, “Life’s less*ns in design,”
Nature, January 18, 2001.
6 A Conversation with Janine Benyus,
7 http://www.*atchtower.org/library/g
8 h*tp://www.rdg.ac.uk*biom*metics/ pro-
9 Bilim ve Teknik (Science and
Technology Magazine), TUBITAK
Publishings, August 1994, p. 43.
10 Philip Ball, “Life’s lessons in design”,
Nature 409, 413-416 (2001).
11 “Biomimicry: Secrets Hiding in Plain
Sight,” NBL 6.22, November 17, 1997;
12 Janine M. Benyus, Biomimicry:
Innovation Inspired By N*ture, William
Morrow and Company Inc., New York,
13 Ed Hunt, “Biomimicry: Genius that
Surrounds Us,” Tidepool Editor;
14 Robin Eisner, “Biomimetics: Creating
Materials From Nature’s Blueprints,” The
Scientist, July 08, 1991; http://www.the-sci-
15 Jim Rob*ins, “Engineers Ask Nature
for Design Advice,” New York Times,
December 11, 2001.
16 David Perlman, “Business and Nature
in Productive, Efficient Harmony,” San
Francisco Chronicle, November 30, 1997,
p. 5;
17 Ilhan Aksay, “Mal**me Biliminin
Onderlerinden” (A leading figure in material
science), Bilim ve Teknik (Science and
Technology Magazine), TUBITAK
Publishings, February 2002, p. 92.
18 Billy Goodman, “Mimicking Nature,”
Princeton Weekly, Feature-January 28,
19 Ilhan Aksay, “Malzeme Biliminin
Onderlerinden” (A leading figure in material
science), Bilim ve Teknik (Science and
Technology Magazine), TUBITAK
Publishings, February 2002, p. 93.
20 Ibid.
21 Julian Vincent, “Tricks of Nature,”
New Scientist, August 17, 1996, vol. 151,
no. 2043, p. 38.
22 Ilhan Aksay, “Malzeme Biliminin
Onderlerinden” (A leading figure in material
science) Bilim ve Teknik (Science and
Technology Magazine), TUBITAK
Publishings, February 2002, p. 93.
23 “Learning From Designs in Nature,”
Life A product of Design; http://www.watch-
Ha*un Yahya
24 Ibid.
25 Benyus, Biomimicry, pp. 9*-100.
26 “Learning From Designs in Nature,”
Life A product of Design; http://www.watch-
27 Julian Vincent, “Tricks of Nature,”
New Scientist, August 17, 1996, vol. 151,
no. 2043, p* 38.
28 Ibid., p. 39.
30 Julian Vincent, “Tricks of Nature,”
New Scientist, August 17, 1996, vol. 151,
no. 2043, p. 39
31 Ibid., p. 40.
32 J. M. Gosline, M. E. DeMont & M. W.
Denny, "The Structure and Properties of
Spider*Silk," Endeavour, Volume 10, Issue
1, 1986, p. 42.
33 “Learning From Designs in Nature”,
Life A product of Design; http://www.watch-
34 "Spider (arthropod)," Encarta Online
Encyclopedia 2005
35 J. M. Gosline, M. W. Denny & M. E.
DeMont, “Spider silk as rubber,” Nature,
**l.*3*** *o* *9**,**p* **1-***;**tt***/ia-
36*“How Spiders Make Their Silk”,
Discover, vol. 19, no. 10, October 1998.
37 Shear, W.A., J. M. Palmer, “A
Devonian Spinneret: Early Evidence of
Spiders and Silk Use,” Science, vol. 246,
pp. 479-481;
38 Ali Demirsoy, Kalitim ve Evrim
(Inheritance and Evolution), Meteksan
Publishing Co., Ankara, 1984, p. 80.
39 For further details see Harun Yahya’s
Design in Nature , Ta Ha Publishers,
January 2002.
40 Jim Robbins, “Engineers Ask Nature
for Design Advice,” New York Times,
December 11, 2001.
*1 Jim Robbin*, “Engineers Ask Nature
for Design Advice,” New York Times,
December 11, 2001.
42 John Whitfield, “Making Crops Cry
For Help,” Nature, April 12, 2001, p. 736-
43 Ibid.
44 Ibid.
45 Peter Weiss, “Soaking Up Rays,”
Science News, August 4, 2001.
46 Ibid.
47 “Learning From Designs in Nature,”
Life A product of Design; http://www.watch-
48 Stuart Blackman, “Synchronised
Swimming,” BBC Wildlife, February 1998,
p. 57.
49 Waikiki Aquarium Education
Department, December 1998;
50 “The Designing Times,” vol. 1, no. 8,
March 2000;
51 Philip Ball, “Astounding Bat Mobility,”
Nature, February 2, 2001.
52 Ibid.
53 For fu*ther details see Harun Y*hya’s
Design in Nature , Ta Ha Publishers,
January 2002.
54 Phil Gates, Wild Technology, p. 52.
55 Betty Mamane, “Le surdoué du garnd
blue,” Science et vie Junior, August 1998,
pp. 79-84.
56 Sonar means “Sound Navigation and
57 “Yale Sonar Robot Modeled After Bat
and Dolphin Echolocation Behavior,” Yale
University—Office of Public Affairs;
58 “Biomimicry,” Buckminster Fuller
Biom*metics: Technology Imitates Nature
59 New S*ientist, October 14, 2000, p.
60 “Kirlilige Bal›k Dedektoru”, Science;
trans.: Mustafa Ozturk, Bilim ve Teknik
(Science and Tec*nology), TUBITAK
Publishings, February 1991, p. 43.
61 “Kusursuz Ucus Makineleri” (Flawless
Flying Machines), Reader’s Digest, trans.:
Ruhsar Kansu, Bilim ve Teknik (Science
and Technology), TUBITAK Publishings,
no. 136, March 1979, p. 21
6******mim*cry,* **ur*********a**h;
63 For further information see Harun
Yahya’s Darwinism Refuted, Goodword
Books, New Delhi, 2003.
64 “Biyonik, Dogay› Kopya Etmektir,”
(**o***s *opies***ture) Sc*e*ce*** V*e,
trans.: Dr.Hanasl› Gur, Bilim ve Teknik
(Science and Technology), TUBITAK
Publishings, July 1985, pp. 19-20.
65 Necmi Kara, “Yak›ts›z Ucus”
(Fuelless Flight*, Bilim ve Teknik (Science
and Technology), TUBITAK Publishings;
66 “Biyonik, Dogay› Kopya Etmektir”
(Bionics Copies Nature), Science et Vie,
trans.: Dr.Hanasl› Gur, Bilim ve Teknik
(Science and Technology), TUBITAK
Publishings, July 1985, p. 19.
67 Michael Dickinson, “Solving the
Mystery of Insec* Flight,” Scientific
American, June 2001.
68 Ibid.
69 Ibid.
70 Hideki Takagi, Ross Sanders,
"Hydrodynamics makes a splash," Physics
World, September 2000.
71 “Heat-seeking vipers may help with
U.S. defense, UT Austin researcher finds,”
On Campus, vol.28* no.08, 27 June 2001;
72 Ibid.
73 Ibid.
74 International Wildlife, September-
*cto**r 1992, p. 34.
75 Ann M*rie Cunningham, "Clothes
*hat Change Color," Sci*nCentral.*nc.,
76 Parker, A.R., “Light-reflection strate-
gies,” American Scientist (1999a) 87 (3),
248-255; http://www.rdg.ac.
77 Parker, A. R., “Water capture by a
desert beetle,” Nature 414, 2001, pp. 33-
78 Ibid.
79 Stuart Blackman, “Fatal Flasher,”
BBC Wildlife, April 199*, vol.16, no.4, p.
81 Eiji Nakatsu, "Learning From Nature -
A Flight of Wild Birds and Railways,"
82 Ibid.
83 “Biomimicry”, Buckminster Fuller
84 Ilan Greenberg, "Butterflies Show
Path to Cooler Chips," Wired News,
85 “N*w standa*d set for scientific visu-
alizations”, S*ndia National Laboratories,
News Releases, July 12, 2001;
86 Robert Kunzig, “The Beat Goes On,”
Discover, January 2000.
87 Ibid.
88 Ibid.
89 Ibid.
90 “The Internet strikes back,” New
Harun Yahya
Scientist, May 24, 1997.
91 Phil Gates, Wild Technology, p. 54.
92 David H.Hubbel, Eye Brain and
Vis*on, Scientific American Library, 1988, p.
93 Jim Giles, “Think Like A Bee,” Nature,
March 29, 2001, pp. 510-512.
94 Ibid.
95 “SWAT’z new?—fly that’s setting the
hearing world abuzz”, NIDCD, February
13, 2003;
96 Peter M. Narins, “Acousti*s: In a Fly’s
Ear,” Nature 410, 2001, pp. 644-645.
97 “Biyonik, Dogay› Kopya Etmektir”
(Bionics Copies Nature), Science et Vie,
trans.: Dr.Hanasl› Gur, Bilim ve Teknik
(Science and Technology), TUBITAK
Publishings, Jul* 1985, p. 21.
98 Smithsonian National Zoological
99 David Attenborough, The Private Life
Of Plants, Princeton University Press,
1995, p. 291.
100 Smithsonian National Zoological
101 “Biyonik, Dogay› Kopya Etmektir,”
(Bionics Copies Nature) Science et Vie,
trans.: Dr.Hanasl› Gur, Bilim ve Teknik
(Science and Technology),*TUBITAK
Publishings, July 1985, p. 21.
102 Erica Klarreich, “Good vibrations,”
Nature Science Update, April 3, 2001.
103 Joseph Ayers, Joel L. Davis and
Alan Rudolph, “Neurotechnology for
Biomimet*c Robo*s;”
104 For further information see Harun
Yahya’s For Men of Understanding , Ta Ha
Publishers, April 2*03.
105 Kevin Bonsor, “How Snakebots will
Work,” Howstuffworks; http://www.howstuff-
106 Duncan Graham-Rowe, "Walk like a
scorpion," NewScientist; 21 April 2001.
107 “B*ological Analysis,” AIS Approach;
108 Ibid.
109 Duncan Graham-Rowe, "Walk like a
scorpion," NewScientist; 21 April 2001.
110 Yvonne Carts-Powell, “Robots mimic
living creatures,” OE Reports;
111 Ibid.
112 Ibid.
113 Robert Sanders, “Lobster sniffing:
how lobsters’ hairy noses capture smells
from the sea,” UC Berkele* Campus News,
November 30, 2001;
114 Ibid.
115 Projects at the Centre for
116 BBC News Online, June 7, 2000;
117 World Wealth International, vol. 1,
no. 1, F*bruary 2001; http://www.world-
118 Fenella Saunders, "Robo-Geckos,"
Discover, September 2000, vol. 21, no. 9
123 Phil Gates, Wild Technology, p. 5.
Ibid., p. 55.
Ibid., p. 64.
Ibid., p. 67.
127 “Biomimicry”, Your Planet Earth
Biomimetics: Technology Imitates Nature
Glossary 1.0.1; http://www.yourplan-
128 Phil Gates, Wild Technology, p. 65.
129 For further information see Harun
Yahya’s For Men of Understanding , Ta Ha
Publishers, April 2003.
130 Phil Gates, Wild Technology, p. 66.
131 http://www.bitkidunyasi.net/ilgincbitk-
132 Phil Gates, Wild Technology, p. 67.
133 Animal Inventors, National
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25, 2001.
134 Phil Gate*, Wil* Technology,*p. 16.
135 Ric*ard *aw*ins, C*imbing Mount
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136 “The Elephant’s Trunk Robotic Arm;”
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138 Alexander I. Oparin, Origin of Life,
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139 "New Evidence on Evolution of
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141 Jeffrey Bada, Earth, February 1998,
142 Leslie E.*Orgel, "The *rigin*of Li*e
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143 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Spe-
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144 Charles Darwin, The Origin of Spe-
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145 B. G. Ranganathan, Origins?,
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146 Darwin, The Origin of Species: A
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149 Solly Zuckerman, Beyond The Ivory
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150 "Could science be brought to an end
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151 Alan Walker, Science, vol. 207, 7
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152 Jeffrey Kluger, "Not So Extinct After
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153 S. J. Gould, Natural History, vol. 85,
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154 Zuckerman, Bey*nd The Ivory
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155 Richard Lewontin, "The Demon-
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156 Malcolm Muggeridge, The End of
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